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Clinical Immunology

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures on Clinical Immunology, Academic year 2022/2023, Summer semester



1.) 28th February 2023. Hypersensitivity reactions - types I to V. Allergies

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Hypersensitive reactions - classification and immunopathogenic mechanisms. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Immunopathogenetic mechanisms of type I HSR. Allergens, IgE antibodies, cells and mediators of allergic reactions. Genetics of allergy. Anaphylactic shock and its therapy. Pseudoallergic reactions - non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Complement and K cell-mediates cytotoxic reactions. Immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Antibody-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory hypersensitivity reactions. Serum disease vs. serum shock.


2.) 7th March 2023. Autoimmunity - general principles

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunological tolerance. Genetic predisposition to the development of autoimmune processes. Pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune processes, the role of antigen. Hormones and environmental factors in the induction of autoimmune processes. Autoinflammatory diseases.


3.) 14th March 2023. Selected autoimmune disorders, I

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn´s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica).


4.) 21st March 2023. Selected autoimmune disorders, II

Juraj Javor, MD., PhD.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (myasthenia gravis, psoriasis vulgaris, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus).


5.) 28st March 2023. Anti-infectious immunity

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Defence mechanisms against extracellular and intracellular parasitic bacteria. Defence mechanisms against viruses, parasites and fungi. SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


6.) 4th April 2023. Inflammation. Sepsis and septic shock

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Systemic inflammation, MODS, MOF and septic shock. The role of Th1 and Th2 immunity and pro- and anti-inflammatory immune response. SIRS, CARS, MARS and PICS. The role of HPA axis. Laboratory diagnosis of systemic inflammation – Neu/Ly ratio, procalcitonin, CRP, neopterin, HMGB1, TREM-1. Differential diagnosis of systemic infectious vs. non-infectious inflammation.


7.) 11th April 2023. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, I

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunoprevention, immunoprophylaxis. Types of vaccines, vaccination program in Slovakia. Immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive drugs.


8.) 18th April 2023. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, II

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Monoclonal antibodies and cytokines in the therapy of autoimmune diseases, infections and tumors. Gene therapy. Therapy by peptides, fusion proteins and small molecules.


9.) 25th April 2023. Immunology of pregnancy. Fetomaternal interactions

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.

Immunological paradox in pregnancy. Tolerance of the fetus by the immune system of the mother. The role of HLA-G. Immune system development in fetus and newborns.


10.) 2nd May 2023. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, tissues and organs

Assoc. prof. Ivana Shawkatová, Mgr., PhD.  

Nomenclature of transplantations. Transplantation reactions HvG and GvH. Exceptions from rejections. Kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations.


11.) 9th May 2023. Tumors and immune system

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.

Etiology of malignant transformations of cells (causal physical, chemical and biological factors). Immunological surveillance, hallmarks of cancer. Immunoediting. Anti-tumor immunity. Escape mechanisms of tumor cells from immunological surveillance. Metastatic processes. Role of inflammation in carcinogenesis and metastatic process. Immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy.


12.) 16th May 2023. Immunodeficiencies. AIDS

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Hallmarks of immunodeficiencies. Overview of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies; occurrence rates. Primary deficiencies of non-specific (innate) immunity. Adaptive cellular, humoral and combined immunodeficiencies. Secondary immunodeficiencies. AIDS. Nomenclature of AIDS. Structure of HIV. Interactions between HIV and target cells. Clinical stages of AIDS. Epidemiology of HIV infections and prevention. Diagnosis and therapy. 




Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Head of the department

Bratislava, January 30, 2023


The lectures will be held in dual form. This means that the lectures will take place in presence form on Moskovská street n. 2, room M106, every Tuesday between 5.30 and 7.20 p.m. in order to accommodate those of you who prefer this form of teaching with the possibility of immediate interaction and communication. Those of you who do not like the time of the lecture late in the evening or who prefer distance learning, have an alternative option to watch the lectures at home in MSTeams. You can then combine both options during the semester.

Study literature

Obligatory textbook                                                  

Buc M: Basic and Clinical Immunology. 4th revised edition. Bratislava; Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 2020, 554 p.


Recommended textbooks 

Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp., 2007, 566 p.

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496 p.

Information on exam

Dear students,

the immunology exam will take the form of a multiple choice test in Moodle. The test will consist of 40 questions with five options. You can get a total of 200 points. You will have 50 minutes to complete the test.



140-150 points: E

151-160 points: D

161-170 points: C

171-185 points: B

186-200 points: A


You should be able to see your result right after completing the test.


prof. Mária Bucová

Head of the Institute