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Clinical Immunology

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures on Clinical Immunology, Academic year 2023/2024, Summer semester



1.) March 8, 2024. Hypersensitivity reactions - type I. Allergies

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Atopy and anaphylaxis. Immunopathogenetic mechanisms of type I HR. Allergens, IgE antibodies, Fc receptors, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Primary and secondary mediators of allergic reactions. Genetics of allergy. Anaphylactic shock and its therapy. Pseudoallergic reactions - non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions.


2.) March 15, 2024. Hypersensitivity reactions - types II to V

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical symptomatology. Complement and K cell-mediates cytotoxic reactions. Immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Antibody-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory hypersensitivity reactions. Serum disease vs. serum shock.


3.) March 22, 2024. Inflammation. Sepsis and septic shock

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Systemic inflammation, MODS, MOF and septic shock. The role of Th1 and Th2 immunity and pro- and anti-inflammatory immune response. SIRS, CARS, MARS and PICS. The role of HPA axis. Laboratory diagnosis of systemic inflammation – Neu/Ly ratio, procalcitonin, CRP, neopterin, HMGB1, TREM-1. Differential diagnosis of systemic infectious vs. non-infectious inflammation.


4.) March 29, 2024. Autoimmunity

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunological tolerance. Genetic predisposition to the development of autoimmune processes. Pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune processes, the role of antigen. Hormones and environmental factors in the induction of autoimmune processes. Autoinflammatory diseases.


5.) April 5, 2024. Selected autoimmune disorders, I

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn´s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica).


6.) April 12, 2024. Selected autoimmune disorders, II

Juraj Javor, MD., PhD.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (myasthenia gravis, psoriasis vulgaris, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus).


7.) April 19, 2024. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, tissues and organs

Assoc. prof. Ivana Shawkatová, Mgr., PhD.  

Nomenclature of transplantations. Transplantation reactions HvG and GvH. Exceptions from rejections. Kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. 


8.) April 26, 2024. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, I

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunoprevention, immunoprophylaxis. Types of vaccines, vaccination program in Slovakia. Immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive drugs.


9.) May 3, 2024. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, II

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Monoclonal antibodies and cytokines in the therapy of autoimmune diseases, infections and tumors. Gene therapy. Therapy by peptides, fusion proteins and small molecules.


10.) May 10, 2024. Immunology of pregnancy. Fetomaternal interactions

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.

Immunological paradox in pregnancy. Tolerance of the fetus by the immune system of the mother. The role of HLA-G. Immune system development in fetus and newborns.


11.) May 17, 2024. Tumors and the immune system

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.

Etiology of malignant transformations of cells (causal physical, chemical and biological factors). Immunological surveillance, hallmarks of cancer. Immunoediting. Anti-tumor immunity. Escape mechanisms of tumor cells from immunological surveillance. Metastatic processes. Role of inflammation in carcinogenesis and the metastatic process. Immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy.


12.) May 24, 2024. Immunodeficiencies. AIDS

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Hallmarks of immunodeficiencies. Overview of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies; occurrence rates. Primary deficiencies of non-specific (innate) immunity. Adaptive cellular, humoral and combined immunodeficiencies. Secondary immunodeficiencies. AIDS. Nomenclature of AIDS. Structure of HIV. Interactions between HIV and target cells. Clinical stages of AIDS. Epidemiology of HIV infections and prevention. Diagnosis and therapy. 




Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Head of the department

Bratislava, February 5, 2024


The lectures will be held on Friday between 14:30 and 16:20 on Moskovská street n. 2, room 203.

Study literature

Obligatory textbook 


Buc M: Basic and Clinical Immunology. 4th revised edition. Bratislava; Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 2020, 554 p.


Video- and pdf-presentations in MSTeams



Recommended textbooks 


Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp., 2007, 566 p.

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496 p.

Information on exam

Dear students,

the immunology exam will take the form of a multiple choice test in Moodle. The test will consist of 40 questions with five options. You can get a total of 200 points. You will have 50 minutes to complete the test.



140-150 points: E

151-160 points: D

161-170 points: C

171-185 points: B

186-200 points: A


You should be able to see your result right after completing the test.


prof. Mária Bucová

Head of the Institute