Zóna pre zamestnancov
a študentov LF UK


Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures - Dentistry, Academic year 2023/2024



1., 21st February 2024.  Introduction to the study of Immunology. Antigen

Assoc. prof. I. Shawkatová, Mgr., PhD.                                                          

-     Introduction to the study of Immunology

-     The immune system, its characteristics

-     Natural and acquired immunity

-     Antigen, its characteristics and properties


2., 28th February 2024.  Structure and function of antibodies

Assoc. prof. V. Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.                                 

-     B cells, plasma cells

-     Immunoglobulins, their structure, classification and function

-     Biological properties of immunoglobulins

-     Primary and secondary immune responses, the titer of the serum, antibody titer

-     Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies

-     Determination of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection and after vaccination


3., 6th March 2024.  The complement system

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.   

-     Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of activation

-     Vasoactive and chemotactic factors

-     Receptors, regulatory proteins

-     Biological significance of the complement system


4., 13th March 2024.  Phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Inflammation

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.                              

-     Professional phagocytes

-     Chemotaxis, opsonisation

-     Process of phagocytosis. Microbicidial mechanisms

-     Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors                   

-     Infectious and non-infectious inflammation, molecular and cellular events 


5., 20th March 2024. The major histocompatibility complex in man. Membrane antigens

Assoc. prof. I. Shawkatová, Mgr., PhD.   

-     Genomic organisation of the HLA-complex

-     HLA-molecules, their biochemical structure and distribution

-     The biological significance of the HLA-complex

-     The HLA-complex in organ and tissue transplantations

-     Membrane antigens, their distribution and biological function


6., 27th March 2024.  Antigen presentation. T, NK, NKT, MAIT and ILC cells

Prof. M. Buc, MD., DrSc.

-     T cells. Subsets of T helper cells

-     Pathways of antigen presentation

-     Regulatory and memory T cells

-     Basic characteristics of NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells


7., 10th April 2024.  Cytokines – general properties, classification. Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.    

-     General properties of cytokines, classification of cytokines

-     Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Inflammation

-     Systemic inflammation and sepsis

-     Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines

-     Chemokines and hematopoietic growth factors


8., 17th April 2024.  Cytokines of adaptive immunity. The role of cytokines in the development of immune response. Polarization of T helper cells.

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.                                  

-     Cytokines of adaptive immunity

-     Cytokines of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22 immunity

-     The role of cytokines in the polarization of T cells

-     The role of cytokines in immune response development

-     Immunosuppressive cytokines


9., 24th April 2024.  Hypersensitivity reactions and their classification. Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Life-threatening allergic reactions. Anaphylactic shock. Pseudoallergic reactions. Histamine intolerance. Therapy of allergy

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

-     Type I hypersensitivity reactions - cellular basis and mediators

-     Atopy and anaphylaxis

-     Allergens

-     Clinical symptomatology of allergy. Oral allergic syndrome, Kounis syndrome

-     Anaphylactic shock

-     Non-IgE mediated pseudoallergic reactions (anaphylactoid reactions)

-     Histamine intolerance

-     Therapy of allergy and anaphylactic shock


10., 1st May 2024.  Hypersensitivity reactions types II - V

Assoc. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.                                  

-     Type II hypersensitivity reactions

-     Drug reactions, ABO and Rh incompatibilities

-     Type III hypersensitivity reactions. Local Arthus reaction, serum sickness

-     Type IV hypersensitivity reactions, contact dermatitis, photoallergic dermatitis

-     Type V hypersensitivity reactions (m. Gravesmyasthenia gravis)


11., 8th May 2024.  Autoimmune processes. Autoimmune diseases affecting the oral cavity. Autoinflammatory diseases

Prof. M. Buc, MD., DrSc.

-     Mechanisms of T-cell tolerance to self-antigens

-     Central and peripheral tolerance

-     Genetic and hormonal factors in autoimmunity. The role of autoantigen

-     Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases

-     Autoimmune diseases affecting the oral cavity. Sjögren´s syndrome, pemphigus vulgaris

-     Autoinflammatory diseases, genetics, symptomatology and diagnosis


12., 15th May 2024.  Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies

J. Javor, MD., PhD.                                                                        

-     General features of immunodefiencies

-     Immune system of the oral cavity and oro-dental diseases

-     Defence mechanisms in the oral cavity and diseases affecting the oral cavity

-     Symptomatology of immune deficiencies in the oral cavity

-     Etiological agents of AIDS. Genetic variability of HIV

-     Interaction of HIV with cells of the immune system

-     Clinical stages of HIV infection and AIDS

-     Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

-     Immunotherapy of HIV infection


Bonus on-line lecture available in MSTeams:  Anti-infectious immunity

Prof. M. Buc, MD., DSc.                                     

-     Protective mechanisms against extra- and intracellular bacteria

-     Protective mechanisms against viruses

-     Protective mechanisms against parasites

-     Protective mechanisms against yeasts and molds

-     SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19




Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Head of the department


Bratislava, February 4, 2024



The lectures will be held on Wednesdays, 9.30 - 11.20 a.m., in the Large Auditorium.

Syllabus of practical classes

Syllabus of practical classes - Dentistry, Academic year 2023/2024



1. (26.02. - 01.03. 2024)  

Serologic Reactions I. Classical methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Agglutination

·        Precipitation

·        Radial immunodiffusion and other immunodiffusion techniques

·        Turbidimetry, nephelometry

·        Immunoelectrophoresis

Practical experiments:

-        ABO blood groups and Rh-factor determination

-        Evaluation of antibodies against Treponema pallidum by passive haemagglutination

Teacher responsible for the PC: Z. Párnická, MD., PhD.


2. (04.03. - 08.03. 2024)  

Serologic Reactions II. Progressive methods based on antibody – antigen interactions. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection

·        Enzyme immunoassays

·        Radioimmunoassays

·        Immunofluorescence

·        Immunoblotting

·        Immunochromatography

·        Chemiluminescence

Practical experiments:

-        ELISA techniques and their modifications, HCG pregnancy test, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and SARS-CoV-2 infection

Teacher responsible for the PC: Z. Párnická, MD., PhD.


3. (11.03. - 15.03. 2024)  

Evaluation of innate humoral immunity components

·        Total complement activity assays (CH50, AH50)

·        Evaluation of complement components (RID, turbidimetry and nefelometry)

·        Determination of acute phase proteins

.        CRP determination  

Practical experiments:

-        Separation of serum and plasma

-        CRP-determination from capillary blood by the means of reflectometry (NycoCard®)

Teacher responsible for the PC: Z. Párnická, MD., PhD.


4. (18.03. - 22.03. 2024)  

Evaluation of innate cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of leukocytes from peripheral blood, enumeration of neutrophils

·        Functional analysis of neutrophils

·        Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index

·        Candidacidal activity

·        Metabolic activation (NBT test)

     Practical experiments:

-        Separation of leukocytes from peripheral blood using 6% dextran

-        Evaluation of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and candidacidal activity        

 ·        CREDIT TEST No.I

Teacher responsible for the PC: Z. Párnická, MD., PhD.; B. Tóthová


5. (25.03. - 05.04. 2024)

Evaluation of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of lymphocytes

·        Separation of T cell subpopulations

·        Evaluation of T and B cell numbers (flow cytometry)

·        Evaluation of the function of T and B cells (lymphocyte transformation test, determination of the levels of antibodies against vaccine antigens)          

·        Immunoskin tests

·        Interferon-gamma release assays

Practical experiments:

-        Isolation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque

Teacher responsible for the PC: J. Javor, MD., PhD.


6. (08.04. - 12.04. 2024)

Laboratory methods used in transplantation immunology – HLA-typing

·        Serologic methods: microlymphocytotoxicity assay

·        Cellular methods: MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture)

·        DNA-based methods: PCR –SSP and others

Practical experiments: 

-        Video explaining DNA-based HLA-typing

-        Interpretation of the results of HLA-typing by PCR-SSP

Teacher responsible for the PC: J. Javor, MD.


7. (15.04. - 19.04. 2024)

In vivo and in vitro tests used in the diagnosis of allergies

·        Allergy: atopy and anaphylaxis, clinical symptomatology. Anaphylactic shock – symptomatology and therapy.

.        Family and personal history, indoor and outdoor allergens.  

·        Skin tests: prick test, scarification test, intradermal skin test, epicutaneous test

 .       Determination of total and allergen–specific IgE levels        

.        Basophil-degranulation test 

Demonstration: EPIGNOST – quick test for measurement of IgE levels

                         Epinephrine (adrenaline) autoinjector

Teacher responsible for the PC: J. Javor, MD., PhD.


8. (20.04. - 26.04. 2024)

Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis of HIV infection

·        Determination of acute phase proteins, levels of immunoglobulins, total complement activity, C3, C4 complement levels, CD4/CD8 ratio

·        Detection of autoantibodies

·        Determination of circulating immune complexes

·        Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

Practical experiments:

-        Rheumatoid factor determination by passive agglutination

Teacher responsible for the PC: J. Javor, MD., PhD.


9. (29.04. - 03.05. 2024)

Laboratory assessment of the immune status - overview

·        Evaluation of innate and adaptive immunity – summary, differential blood cell counting, inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, neopterin, TREM-1).

·        Immunodiagnosis of tumors


Teacher responsible for the PC: Z. Párnická, MD.



Practical classes are held in person at Moskovská street 2, room 106


Zuzana Párnická, MD., PhD.        Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD., extraordinary prof.

Charged with the organisation of Practicals                      Head of the Department



Study literature

Obligatory textbooks


Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. 4th revised version. Bratislava: Comenius University 2020, 554 p.


Buc M, Javor J: Basic and Clinical Immunology for Dentistry Students. Bratislava: Comenius University 2017, 324 p.


Shawkatová I and coauthors: Laboratory Methods in Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2014, 128 p.


Video- and pdf-presentations in MSTeams


Recommended textbooks


Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496

Material and guidelines for self-study

Information on exam

Immunology exam for Dentistry in summer semester 2020/2021 will take the form of an online test written in MS Forms. The total number of test questions is 40 and the maximum possible number of points is  200. Of those 40 questions will be approx. 3 creative for which a short answer must be given. The test duration is 45 minutes. In order to obtain at least grade E and thus successfully pass the exam, it is necessary to get a minimum of 150 points.

Test evaluation: 150-160 points: E; 161-170 points: D; 171-180 points C; 181-190 points B; 191-200 points: A

Please pay attention to the study of diseases and pathological conditions which you can encounter during your future professional practice, some of them are life-threatening and it is essential to know their causes, manifestations and treatment (anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reaction, serum disease and other hypersensitivity reactions, some immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, AIDS). Thus, it is not recommended to focus only on basic immunology and ignore clinical immunology.