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a študentov LF UK

General Medicine

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures - General Medicine, Academic year 2021/2022



1., 13th September 2021.  Introduction to the study of Immunology. Antigen.

(Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.)                                                                   

-     Introduction to the study of Immunology, milestones of immunology

-     The immune system, its characteristics

-     Primary and secondary lymphoid organs

-     Innate and adaptive immunity, cells and humoral factors

-     Antigen, its characteristic and properties


2., 20th September 2021.  B cells. Structure and function of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies. Acute phase proteins.

(Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.)     

-     B cells, antibody-producing plasma cells

-     Immunoglobulins, their structure, classification and function

-     Biological properties of immunoglobulins

-     Primary and secondary immune responses

-     Antibody deficiencies

-     Polyclonal antibodies. Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies

-     Acute phase proteins


3., 27th September 2021.  The complement system.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                                          

-     Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of activation

-     Vasoactive and chemotactic factors

-     Biological significance of the complement system

-     Receptors, regulatory proteins

-     Complement deficiencies

-     Hereditary angioedema


4., 4th October 2021.  Phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Alarmins. Inflammation.

(Prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                                   

-     Professional phagocytes, process of phagocytosis

-     Oxygen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms

-     Nitrogen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms

-     Bactericidal proteins and peptides, NETs

-     Infectious and non-infectious inflammation

-     Pattern recognition receptors

-     Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns

-     Molecular and cellular basis of inflammation, resolution of inflammation, acute phase proteins


5., 11th October 2021The major histocompatibility complex in man. Membrane molecules of cells of the immune system.

(Assoc. prof. Ivana Shawkatová, MSc., PhD.)

-     HLA-molecules, genetic determination, biochemical structure

-     Distribution and biological significance of HLA molecules

-     The HLA-complex in organ and tissue transplantations

-     Membrane antigens, their characteristics, nomenclature and function


6.,  18th October 2021.  Antigen presentation. T cells. Unconventional lymphocytes.

(Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.)                                                                       

-     Endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen presentation

-     T cells, their receptors and subsets

-     CD1 and MR1 presentation pathways

-     Unconventional lymphocytes - NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells, their characteristics and function                                          


7.,  25th October 2021.  General properties of cytokines. Polarization of T helper cells. Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chemokines and their receptors.

(Prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                                         

-     General properties of cytokines

-     Polarization of helper T cells

-     Cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immunity

-     Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines

-     Local inflammation, SIRS, sepsis, septic shock

-     SIRS versus polymicrobial sepsis

-     Cytokines that stimulate haematopoiesis

-     Chemokines


1st November 2021 - No lecture (All Saints´ day)


8., 8th November 2021.  Breakdown of central and peripheral tolerance. Autoimmunity. Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy. Autoinflammatory diseases.

(Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.)                                                                         

-     Dominant and peripheral tolerance. Breakdown of tolerance

-     Genetic and hormonal factors in autoimmunity

-     Pathogenic mechanisms in the development of autoimmune processes

-     The role of antigens in autoimmune development

-     Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy

-     Autoinflammatory diseases, mechanisms of their development, clinical manifestations and treatment


9., 15th November 2021.  Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid (non-IgE pseudoallergic) reactions, therapy. Histamine intolerance.

(Prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                                             

-     Hypersensitivity reactions type I.

-     Atopy and anaphylaxis 

-     Mediators of allergic reaction

-     Allergens. Clinical symptomatology of allergy

-     Anaphylactic shock, pseudoallergic (anaphylactoid) reactions

-     Therapy of allergy and anaphylactic shock

-     Histamine intolerance, laboratory diagnosis, therapy


10., 22nd November 2021.  Hypersensitivity reactions types II - V.

(Prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                                             

-     Type II hypersensitivity reactions. Drug hypersensitivity

-     ABO and Rh system incompatibility

-     Type III hypersensitivity reactions. Immune complexes and diseases

-     Local Arthus reaction, serum sickness - immunopathogenesis, symptoms and therapy

-     Type IV hypersensitivity reactions. Cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Contact dermatitis, photoallergic dermatitis, ...

-     Type V hypersensitivity reactions. Myasthenia gravis and Graves disease - immunopathogenesis and clinical symptomatology


11., 29th November 2021.  Anti-infectious immunity. Vaccination. Immunity to tumours.

(Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.)                                                                     

-     Immune defense mechanisms against bacteria, viruses and parasites.

-     Vaccination, active and passive immunisation

-     Malignant transformation of cells, effector mechanisms against tumours

-     Escape of tumour cells from immune surveillance mechanisms

-     Metastatic processes. Immunotherapy of tumours


12., 6th December 2021.  Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. HIV, AIDS.

(Juraj Javor, MD., PhD.)

-     Immunodeficiencies – general properties

-     An overview of primary immunodeficiencies

-     History and epidemiology of AIDS

-     Etiological agents of AIDS. Genetic variability of HIV

-     Interaction of HIV with cells of the immune system

-     HIV replication

-     Stages of AIDS development

-     Prevention and therapy of HIV infection




Bratislava, 31st August, 2021                                              


          Prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

          Head of the department


Due to preventive actions, the lectures will take the form of distance learning as videopresentations in Microsoft Teams, which will be published three days ahead of the date. The students will then have a constant access to them.

Syllabus of practical classes

Syllabus of practical classes - General Medicine, Academic year 2021/2022



1. (04. 10. – 08. 10. 2021)  

Serologic Reactions I. Classical methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Agglutination

·        Precipitation

·        Radial immunodiffusion and other immunodiffusion techniques

Practical experiments:

-         ABO blood groups and Rh-factor determination

-        Evaluation of antibodies against Treponema pallidum by passive haemagglutination


2. (11. 10. – 15. 10. 2021)  

Serologic Reactions II. Progressive methods based on antibody – antigen interactions. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

·        Immunoelectrophoresis

·        Turbidimetry, nephelometry

·        Enzyme immunoassays

·        Radioimmunoassays

·        Immunofluorescence

·        Immunochromatography

·        Immunoblotting

·        Chemiluminiscence  

Practical experiments:

-         ELISA techniques and their modifications, HCG test, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection


3. (18. 10. – 22. 10. 2021)  

Evaluation of innate humoral immunity components

·        Total complement activity assays (CH50, AH50)

·        Evaluation of complement components (RID, turbidimetry and nephelometry)

·        Determination of acute phase proteins

.        CRP determination  

Practical experiments:

-         Separation of serum and plasma

-         CRP-determination from capillary blood by the means of NycoCard®


4. (25. 10. – 29. 10. 2021)  

Evaluation of innate cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of leukocytes from peripheral blood, counting of neutrophils

·        Functional analysis of neutrophils

·        Chemotactic activity

·        Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index

·        Candidacidal activity

·        Metabolic activation (NBT test)

     Practical experiments:

-         Separation of leukocytes from peripheral blood using 6% dextran

-         Evaluation of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and candidacidal activity        

 ·         CREDIT TEST No.I


5. (01. 11. – 05. 11. 2021)

Evaluation of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of lymphocytes

·        Separation of T cell subpopulations

·        Evaluation of the number of T and B cells (flow cytometry)

·        Evaluation of the function of T and B cells (lymphocyte transformation test, determination of the levels of antibodies against vaccinated diseases)          

·        Immunoskin tests

Practical experiments:

-         Isolation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque


6. (08. 11. – 12. 11. 2021)

Laboratory methods used in transplantation immunology – HLA-typing

·        Serologic methods: microlymphocytotoxicity assay

·        Cellular methods:  MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture)

·        DNA-based methods: PCR –SSP, sequencing, etc.

Practically: video explaining DNA-based HLA-typing

-        Interpretation of the results of HLA-typing by PCR-SSP


7. (15. 11. – 19. 11. 2021)

In vivo and in vitro tests used in the diagnostics of allergies

·        Allergy: atopy and anaphylaxis, clinical symptomatology. Anaphylactic shock – symptomatology and therapy.

.         Family and personal history, indoor and outdoor allergens.  

·         Skin tests: prick test, scarification test, intradermal skin test, epidermal test

 .        Determination of total and allergen–specific IgE levels        

.         Basophil-activation tests  

Demonstration: test for measurement of IgE levels

                         Epinephrin (adrenaline) autoinjector


8. (22. 11. – 26. 11. 2021)

Laboratory methods used in the diagnostics of autoimmune disorders and immunodeficiencies. Diagnosis of HIV infection.

.        determination of acute phase proteins, levels of immunoglobulins, total complement levels, C3, C4 complement levels, determination of circulating immune complexes, CD4/CD8 ratio

·        Detection of autoantibodies

·        Determination of circulating immune complexes

·        Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

Practical experiments:

-        Rheumatoid factor determination by passive agglutination 


9. (29. 11. – 03. 12. 2021)

Laboratory assessment of the immune status - overview

·         Evaluation of innate and acquired immunity – summary of methods.

·         Immunodiagnostics of tumors.

·          CREDIT TEST II



Practical classes are held at Moskovská street 2, room number 106.



Zuzana Párnická, M.D, PhD.                                                Prof. Mária Bucová, M.D, PhD.

Charged with the organisation of Practical classes                             Head of the Department

Study literature

Obligatory textbooks                                                  

Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2011, 305 p.

Buc M, Javor J: Basic and Clinical Immunology for Dentistry Students. Bratislava: Comenius University 2017, 324 p.

Shawkatová I and coauthors: Laboratory Methods in Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2014, 128 p.


Recommended textbooks 

Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496