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General Medicine

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures - General Medicine, Academic year 2023/2024



1.) September 11, 2023.  Introduction to the study of Immunology. Antigen.

(Prof. Milan Buc, M.D., DSc.)                                                                   

-     Introduction to the study of immunology, milestones of immunology

-     The immune system, its characteristics

-     Primary and secondary lymphoid organs

-     Innate and adaptive immunity, cells and humoral factors

-     Antigen, its characteristics and properties


2.) September 18, 2023.  B cells. Structure and function of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies. Acute phase proteins.

(Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, RNDr., PhD.)     

-     B cells, antibody-producing plasma cells

-     Immunoglobulins, their structure, classification and function

-     Biological properties of immunoglobulins

-     Primary and secondary immune responses

-     Antibody deficiencies

-     Polyclonal antibodies. Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies

-     Acute phase proteins


3.) September 25, 2023.  The complement system.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.)                                                          

-     Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of activation

-     Vasoactive and chemotactic factors

-     Biological significance of the complement system

-     Receptors, regulatory proteins

-     Complement deficiencies

-     Hereditary angioedema


4.) October 2, 2023.  Phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Alarmins. Inflammation.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.)                        

-     Professional phagocytes, process of phagocytosis

-     Oxygen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms

-     Nitrogen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms

-     Bactericidal proteins and peptides, NETs

-     Infectious and non-infectious inflammation

-     Pattern recognition receptors

-     Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns

-     Molecular and cellular basis of inflammation, resolution of inflammation, acute phase proteins


5.) October 9, 2023The major histocompatibility complex in man. Membrane molecules of cells of the immune system.

(Assoc. prof. Ivana Shawkatová, MSc., PhD.)

-     HLA-molecules, genetic determination, biochemical structure

-     Distribution and biological significance of HLA molecules

-     The HLA-complex in organ and tissue transplantations

-     Membrane antigens, their characteristics, nomenclature and function


6.) October 16, 2023.  Antigen presentation. T cells, unconventional lymphocytes.

(Prof. Milan Buc, M.D., DSc.)                                                                       

-     Endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen presentation

-     T cells, their receptors and subsets

-     CD1 and MR1 presentation pathways

-     Unconventional lymphocytes - NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells, their characteristics and function                                          


7.) October 23, 2023.  General properties of cytokines. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Polarization of T helper cells. Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Chemokines and their receptors.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.)                         

-     General properties of cytokines

-     Polarization of T helper cells

-     Cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immunity

-     Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines

-     Local inflammation, SIRS, sepsis, septic shock

-     SIRS versus polymicrobial sepsis

-     New definition of sepsis

-     Cytokines that stimulate haematopoiesis

-     Chemokines


8.) October 30, 2023.  Breakdown of central and peripheral tolerance. Autoimmunity. Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy. Autoinflammatory diseases.

(Prof. Milan Buc, M.D., DSc.)                                                                         

-     Dominant and recessive tolerance. Breakdown of tolerance

-     Genetic and hormonal factors in autoimmunity

-     Pathogenic mechanisms in the development of autoimmune processes

-     The role of antigens in autoimmune development

-     Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy

-     Autoinflammatory diseases, mechanisms of their development, clinical manifestations and treatment


9.) November 6, 2023.  Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid (non-IgE pseudoallergic) reactions, therapy.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.)                        

-     Hypersensitivity reactions type I.

-     Atopy and anaphylaxis 

-     Mediators of allergic reaction

-     Allergens. Clinical symptomatology of allergy

-     Anaphylactic shock, pseudoallergic (anaphylactoid) reactions

-     Therapy of allergy and anaphylactic shock


10.) November 13, 2023.  Hypersensitivity reactions types II - V.

(Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.)                         

-     Type II hypersensitivity reactions. Drug hypersensitivity

-     ABO and Rh system incompatibility

-     Type III hypersensitivity reactions. Immune complexes and diseases

-     Local Arthus reaction, serum sickness - immunopathogenesis, symptoms and therapy

-     Type IV hypersensitivity reactions. Cell-mediated hypersensitivity, contact dermatitis, photoallergic dermatitis, ...

-     Type V hypersensitivity reactions. Myasthenia gravis and Graves disease - immunopathogenesis and clinical symptomatology


11.) November 20, 2023.  Anti-infectious immunity. Vaccination. Anti-tumor immunity.

(Prof. Milan Buc, M.D., DSc.)                                                                     

-     Immune defense mechanisms against bacteria, viruses and parasites

-     Vaccination, active and passive immunisation

-     Malignant transformation of cells, effector mechanisms against tumors

-     Escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance mechanisms

-     Metastatic processes. Immunotherapy of tumors


12.) November 27, 2023.  Primary immunodeficiencies.

(Juraj Javor, M.D., PhD.)

-     Immunodeficiencies – general properties

-     An overview of primary immunodeficiencies

-     Deficiencies of innate cellular immunity

-     Deficiencies of innate humoral immunity

-     Deficiencies of adaptive cellular immunity

-     Deficiencies of adaptive humoral immunity


13.) December 4, 2023.  Secondary immunodeficiencies. HIV, AIDS.

(Juraj Javor, M.D., PhD.)

-     History and epidemiology of AIDS

-     Etiological agents of AIDS. Genetic variability of HIV

-     Interaction of HIV with cells of the immune system

-     HIV replication

-     Stages of AIDS development

-     Prevention and therapy of HIV infection



Bratislava, September 4, 2023                                              


          Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD., extraordinary prof.

          Head of the department


The lectures will have a combined (dual) format. This means that lectures are held in presence on Moskovska street 2, room M6, on Mondays from 16:30 to 19:20. The lectures will be also published in MSTeams as videopresentations and Pdf (or PPT) files, to which students will have constant access with the opportunity to discuss. 

Syllabus of practical classes

Syllabus of practical classes - General Medicine, Academic year 2023/2024



1. (18. 09. – 22. 09. 2023)  

Serologic Reactions I. Classical methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Agglutination

·        Precipitation

·        Radial immunodiffusion and other immunodiffusion techniques

·        Turbidimetry, nephelometry

·        Immunoelectrophoresis

·        Case report

Practical experiments:

-         ABO blood groups and Rh-factor determination

-        Evaluation of antibodies against Treponema pallidum by passive haemagglutination


2. (25. 09. – 29. 09. 2023)  

Serologic Reactions II. Progressive methods based on antibody – antigen interactions. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

·        Enzyme immunoassays

·        Radioimmunoassays

·        Immunofluorescence

·        Immunochromatography

·        Immunoblotting

·        Chemiluminiscence

·        Case report

Practical experiments:

-         ELISA techniques and their modifications, HCG test, detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and SARS-CoV-2


3. (02. 10. – 06. 10. 2023)  

Evaluation of innate humoral immunity components

·        Total complement activity assays (CH50, AH50)

·        Evaluation of complement components (RID, turbidimetry and nephelometry, ELISA)

·        Determination of acute phase proteins

.        CRP determination

.        Case report

Practical experiments:

-         Separation of serum and plasma

-         CRP-determination from capillary blood by the means of reflectometry (NycoCard®)


4. (09. 10. – 13. 10. 2023)  

Evaluation of innate cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of leukocytes from peripheral blood, counting of neutrophils

·        Functional analysis of neutrophils

·        Chemotactic activity

·        Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index

·        Candidacidal activity

·        Metabolic activation (NBT test)

·        Case report

Practical experiments:

-         Separation of leukocytes from peripheral blood using 6% dextran

-         Evaluation of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and candidacidal activity        

 ·         CREDIT TEST I


!!!  16. 10. – 20. 10. 2023 - NO PRACTICAL CLASSES (SSAKI Congress)


5. (23. 10. – 27. 10. 2023)

Evaluation of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of lymphocytes

·        Separation of T cell subpopulations

·        Evaluation of the number of T and B cells (flow cytometry)

·        Evaluation of the function of T and B cells (lymphocyte transformation test, determination of the levels of antibodies against vaccine antigens)          

·        Immunoskin tests

·        Case report

Practical experiments:

-         Isolation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque


6. (30. 10. – 03. 11. 2023)

Laboratory methods used in transplantation immunology – HLA-typing

·        Serologic methods: microlymphocytotoxicity assay

·        Cellular methods:  MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture)

·        DNA-based methods: PCR –SSP, sequencing, etc.

Practically: video explaining DNA-based HLA-typing

-        Interpretation of the results of HLA-typing by PCR-SSP


7. (06. 11. – 10. 11. 2023)

In vivo and in vitro tests used in the diagnostics of allergies

·        Allergy: atopy and anaphylaxis, clinical symptomatology. Anaphylactic shock – symptomatology and therapy

.        Family and personal history, indoor and outdoor allergens  

·        Skin tests: prick test, scarification test, intradermal skin test, epicutaneous (patch) test

 .       Determination of total and allergen–specific IgE levels        

.        Basophil-activation tests

·        Case report

Demonstration: test for measurement of IgE levels

                         Epinephrin (adrenaline) autoinjector


8. (13. 11. – 17. 11. 2023)

Laboratory methods used in the diagnostics of autoimmune disorders and immunodeficiencies. Diagnosis of HIV infection.

.        determination of acute phase proteins, levels of immunoglobulins, total complement levels, C3, C4 complement levels, CD4/CD8 ratio

·        Detection of autoantibodies

·        Determination of circulating immune complexes

·        Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

·        Case report

Practical experiments:

-        Rheumatoid factor determination by passive agglutination 


9. (20. 11. – 24. 11. 2023)

Laboratory assessment of the immune status - overview

·         Evaluation of innate and acquired immunity – summary of methods

·         Immunodiagnostics of tumors

·         CREDIT TEST II



Practical classes are held at Moskovská street 2, room 106.



Zuzana Párnická, M.D, PhD.           Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D, PhD., extraordinary prof.

Charged with the organisation of Practical classes                             Head of the Department

Study literature

Obligatory textbooks


Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. 4th revised edition. Bratislava: Comenius University 2020, 554 p.


Shawkatová I and coauthors: Laboratory Methods in Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2014, 128 p.


Video- and pdf-presentations in MSTeams



Recommended textbooks


Buc M, Javor J: Basic and Clinical Immunology for Dentistry Students. Bratislava: Comenius University 2017, 324 p.


Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496