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Clinical Immunology

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures on Clinical Immunology, Academic year 2021/2022, Summer semester



1.) 1st March 2022. Hypersensitivity reactions - type I. Allergies.

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

Atopy and anaphylaxis. Immunopathogenetic mechanisms of type I HSR. Allergens, IgE antibodies, Fc-receptors, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Primary and secondary mediators of allergic reactions. Genetics of allergy. Anaphylactic shock. Therapy of anaphylactic shock. Pseudoallergic reactions - non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions.


2.) 8th March 2022. Hypersensitivity reactions - types II - V.

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

Immunopathogenetic mechanisms and clinical symptomatology. Complement and K cell-mediates cytotoxic reactions. Immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Delayed type of hypersensitivities. Antibody-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory hypersensitivity reactions. Serum disease vs. serum shock.


3.) 15th March 2022. Autoimmunity.

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunological tolerance. Genetic predisposition to the development of autoimmune processes. Pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune processes, the role of antigen. Hormones and environmental factors in the induction of autoimmune processes. Autoinflammatory diseases.


4.) 22nd March 2022. Selected autoimmune disorders, I.

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn´s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica).


5.) 29th March 2022. Selected autoimmune disorders, II.

Juraj Javor, MD., PhD.

Immunopathogenesis of selected autoimmune diseases (myasthenia gravis, psoriasis vulgaris, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus).


6.) 5th April 2022. Inflammation. Sepsis and septic shock.

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

Systemic inflammation, MODS, MOF and septic shock. The role of Th1 and Th2 immunity and pro- and anti-inflammatory immune response. SIRS, CARS, MARS and PICS. The role of HPA axis. Laboratory diagnosis of systemic inflammation – Neu/Ly ratio, procalcitonin, CRP, neopterin, HMGB1, TREM-1. Differential diagnosis of systemic infectious vs. non-infectious inflammation.


7.) 12th April 2022. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, I.

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Immunoprevention, immunoprophylaxis. Types of vaccines, vaccination program in Slovakia. Immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive drugs.


8.) 19th April 2022. Manipulation of immune mechanisms, II.

Prof. Milan Buc, MD., DSc.

Monoclonal antibodies and cytokines in the therapy of autoimmune diseases, infections and tumours. Gene therapy. Therapy by peptides, fusion proteins and small molecules.


9.) 26th April 2022. Immunology of pregnancy. Fetomaternal interactions.

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, MSc., PhD.

Immunological paradox in pregnancy. Tolerance of the fetus by the immune system of the mother. The role of HLA-G. Immune system development in fetus and newborns.


10.) 3rd May 2022. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and organs.

Assoc. prof. Ivana Shawkatová, MSc., PhD.  

Nomenclature of transplantations. Transplantation reactions HvG and GvH. Exceptions from rejections. Kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations.


11.) 10th May 2022. Tumours and immune system.

Assoc. prof. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, MSc., PhD.

Etiology of malignant transformations of cells (the role of physical, chemical and biological factors). Immunological surveillance, hallmarks of cancer. Immunoediting. Antitumour immunity. Escape mechanisms of tumour cells from immunological surveillance. Metastatic processes. Role of inflammation in carcinogenesis and metastatic process.  Immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy.


12.) 17th May 2022. Immunodeficiencies. AIDS.

Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

Hallmarks of immunodeficiencies. Overview of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies; occurrence rates. Primary deficiencies of non-specific (innate) immunity. Adaptive cellular, humoral and combined immunodeficiencies. Secondary immunodeficiencies. AIDS. Nomenclature of AIDS. Structure of HIV. Interactions between HIV and target cells. Clinical stages of AIDS. Epidemiology of HIV infections and prevention. Diagnosis and therapy. 




Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, MD., PhD.

Head of the department

Bratislava, February 2, 2022


Lectures will be held on-line. Video-presentations will be available via MS Teams three days before the term of lecture (every Tuesday between 5.30 p.m. and 7.20 p.m.)





Study literature

Obligatory textbook                                                  

Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2011, 305 p.


Recommended textbooks 

Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496

Information on exam

Dear students,

the immunology exam will take the form of a multiple choice test in Moodle. The test will consist of 40 questions with five options. You can get a total of 200 points. You will have 50 minutes to complete the test.



140-150 points: E

151-160 points: D

161-170 points: C

171-185 points: B

186-200 points: A


You should be able to see your result right after completing the test.


prof. Mária Bucová

Head of the Institute