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Information for students

Information for students of DENTISTRY:


Subject of Epidemiology is taught in 5th class of DENTISTRY as semestral subject in winter semester (WS) of academic year . This means that for each study group the study are divided into 3 practical lessons (together 12 study hours) followed by the exam in regular  examination period, which includes writing test and oral exam.

Lectures started at the beginning of the winter semester, ongoing two hours 6 times  from the 1rd to 6th study week of the semester. Lectures are intended for all study groups only in this given semester (according to the schedule) within extent of 12 hours. List of lectures. All lectures will be presented in a distance (online) mode in MS Teams

Practical lessons for the certain groups always takes place in given time according to the schedule. Teaching consists of completing 3 days i.e. the total 12 hours of compulsory practical training (practicals) during two to three  weeks of instruction for each individual study group.  Sylabus for practicals

Following all practical lessons and full attendance of lectures are  esignated to good preparation for the exam in Epidemiology, which is usually at the end of semester or as preterm exams, after agreement of the Head of the Institute and confirmation of Vice-dean  for Dentistry.

All information about compulsory or recommended literature, questions for tests and examination are on the website of the institute.

Conditions for passing the practical training of Epidemiology:

1. The student must complete all the topics included in the content of practical training (3 complete days), thus not even have one absence.

2. The student must actively participate in teaching and engage in training. In case of repeated passivity student can be excluded by teachers from teaching and he/she must compensate for a given part.

3. If a student does not meet these conditions, practical part of teaching is recognized as incomplete and he/she cannot participate in the examination.


 Compensation for participation of students in practical lessons:

1. A student who did not complete practical classes in full course and has to replace them, or a part there of, must in advance, before substituting the classes, arrange it with the teachers responsible for teaching the course (J. Perželová, Dr.). Indicating the reason why he/she could not have completed practicals in the given period, and in case of acceptance the reason  he/she may substitute teaching.

2. Compensation for practical classes in advance, before the date resulting from the schedule, is possible only in exceptional and serious reasons and for individual study under the Erasmus program, again in agreement with the responsible teacher.


Final examination in Epidemiology

The conditions for entry to the examination of the Epidemiology is passing prerequisites, i.e. examinations of Microbiology and Immunology (verification is done in AIS2) and passing practical training in Epidemiology (100% participation in practical classes). If a student fails to meet these conditions, he/she will not be admitted to the exam in Epidemiology.


Students in the block are registered for the examination via AIS2 after completing practical tuition (usually Friday evening). Block dates of examination are intended only for students of the relevant block and are stated in accordance with the study and examination regulations. In the examination period, there are next dates of the examination stated for students who have not passed or failed the exam in the block dates of examination.

On the exam day, the students present themselves at the Institute of Epidemiology at 7.15 a.m. and on presentation of the Index they take a written test. Everyone who achieves at least limit test points (70%) is proceeding to the oral examination. Those who do not reach the limit of the points have failed, and will be given mark Fx to AIS2. If a student does not reach the test limit repeatedly in two attempts, in the last third attempt he/she will nevertheless be examined orally. If a student reaches the limit of the points and fails the oral exam, he/she has not to write the test again. These rules also apply when moving the exam to the next class.

On the oral examination a student draws three questions (General Epidemiology, Special Epidemiology, Chronic Diseases) so that the examination can verify comprehensive students' knowledge of epidemiology ( see List of questions to examination).  The  condition for successful completion of the examination is to handle answers to all the questions. A student has the right to prepare a written response, examiner will provide him the necessary time, usually 30 minutes. Cheating during the examination is the reason to discontinue the exam and to Fx evaluation.

Absence at the examination in which the student is enrolled in AIS2 is automatically evaluated by Fx. Registration for an examination and potential cancellation of the examination date, which allows AIS2, is the responsibility of the student. If a student wants to cancel on a date AIS2 already does not permit, may do so in writing, by a letter to the Head of Institute. Similarly, if a student wants to apologize the registered term for which he did not took part in exam, he may do so within 5 days after the examination by a letter to the Head of the Institute, or bring a proof of the visit of the attending physician.

Compulsory textbooks

Špaleková, M. (Ed.) : EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR STUDY OF PUBLIC HEALTH - Vol. 1, 1. vydanie, Comenius University in Bratislava, 2015, 162 s, ISBN: 978-80-223-3933-9

Špaleková, M.  (Ed.) : EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR STUDY OF PUBLIC HEALTH - Vol. 2, 1. vydanie, Comenius University in Bratislava, 2015, 86 s, ISBN: 978-80-223-3934-6

Epidemiological situation of Slovakia.



Recommended literature

1. WHO documents

2. ECDC documents

3. CDC documents

Questions for tests

Epidemiology deals with:

Epidemiology integrates knowledge of scientific disciplines:

Goals of Epidemiology are:                                                       

Epidemiology is defined as:     

Strategies of prevention include:

Primary prevention is targeted on: 

Primary prevention is:

Measures of primary prevention are: 

Secondary prevention include:

Secondary prevention is:

Tertiary prevention is:

Medical and social importance of infectious diseases is determined by indicators:

Morbidity rate is defined as:

Specific morbidity rate is:

Seasonality is:

Incidence rate is:

Incidence rate is used to express occurrence of:

Prevalence rate expresses:

Prevalence is used for estimation of:

Clinical severity of the disease is best expressed by:

Mortality rate is determined by:

Case - fatality rate is:

Data collection is performed by:                                                                                  

Notification of communicable disease is:

Events (medical issues) which must be notified:

Obligatory pathogenic microorganisms:

Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms cause:

Comensals (saprophyts):

Source in epidemiology means:

The source could be:

Epidemiologic significance of sick man as a source of infection is in that sense that:

Measures targeted at sick man:

Carrier of pathogenic germs:                                                              

Chronic carriership occurs in:

Epidemiologic measures at chronic carriership of pathogenic microorganisms are:

From donorship of blood and other biologic material are excluded persons who are:

Epidemiologic measures in case of chronic carriership of typhoid fever include:

Epidemiologic measures in chronic carriers of typhoid fever include:

Hepatittis B could be transmitted by:

Hepatittis C could be transmitted by:

Carriership in HIV infection is:

Sources of zoonoses are:

Zoonoses are determined by following characteristics:

Infections with natural focality are:

Salmonelloses are transmited on man by:

Following infections are transmitted by vectors:

Ticks transmitted etiologic agents causing:

Mosquitoes transmitted etiologic agents causing: 

Measures for interruption of transmission of zoonoses are:

Prevention of zoonoses include:

Lyme borreliosis is transmitted to man by:

Tick-borne encefalitis is transmitted on man by:

Surviving of pathogenic microorganisms in environment is influenced by:                     

Prenatal infection is:

Perinatal infection is:

The most important prenatal infections are:

The most important perinatal infections are caused by:

Perinatal infections are transmitted by:

Clasification of infectious diseases from epidemiological aspects is based on:

Intestinal infections are:

Intestinal infections could be transmitted by:

Basic preventive measures against intestinal infections are:

Air-borne infections are characterized by:

Air-borne infections are transmitted by:

The most effective measures inhibiting spread of air-borne diseases: 

Arthropode-borne infections are characterized by:

Among infections of the skin and external mucosae are:

Infections of the skin and external mucosae are transmitted by:                      

Basic primary prevention measures in majority of infections of the skin and external mucosae are:

Nosocomial infections were acquired:

Nosocomial infections are caused by:

Sources for exogenic nosocomial infections are: 

Exogenic nosocomial infections are caused by transmission of:

Endogenic nosocomial infections are caused by:

Specific nosocomial infections are transmitted mainly by:

Most common nosocomial infections are:

Preventive epidemiologic measures of nosocomial infections include:

Repressive measures in the case of occurrence of nosocomial infections (NI) include:

Essential characteristics of epidemic process are: 

Basic characteristics of epidemic process are:

Basic determinants of epidemic process are:

Epidemic process is continuing change of hosts, appearing from external view as:

Occurrence of infection according to intensity of epidemic process could be:

Intensity of epidemic process is influenced by:

Structure of epidemic process is:

Occurrence of infectious diseases is possible under certain conditions, when:

General measures in control of infectious diseases are targeted at:

Prevention of infectious diseases include:

Focus of infectious disease means:

Basic epidemiologic measures in the focus are targeted to:

Among epidemiologic methods are: 

Purpose of descriptive epidemiology is:

Epidemiologic case-control study is also called:

Cohort epidemiologic study is also called:

Cross-sectional study is:

Risk factor on disease is:

Relative risk is estimated:

Experimental study:


Which of the following represents descriptive epidemiology:

The prevalence of a disease:

The incidence of a disease:

Sensitivity is the probability that:

Specificity is the probability that:

Relative risk:

Odds ratio:

New railway workers are asked about their smoking history. Smoker and non-smokers are subsequently in 5 years compared in relation to the development of myocardial infarction. Which type of analytic study it is:

Personal history of smoking in patients admitted to a hospital for lung cancer was compared to personal history of smoking in patients admitted to the hospital for reasons different from lung cancer. What type of analytic study is this:

Which of the sentences below do you believe are true about case-control study:

Which of the sentences below do you believe are true about cohort study:

Which of the sentences below do you believe are true about randomized controlled clinical trial:

Clinical trial is:

Relative risk of myocardial infarction (MI) related to smoking noted in a study was 2.3. Based on this value you can conclude that:

Cohort studies

Active immunization:

Killed vaccines contain:

Killed vaccines are:

Live vaccines are:

Live vaccines contain:

Regular immunisation in Europe include: 

Persons at risk of professional exposition are usually vaccinated against:

Vaccination of travellers is performed:

In the case of injury protection is administered by vaccination against:

Pregnant women are never vaccinated against:

Pregnant women in postexposure prophylaxis could be vaccinated against:

Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB):

Vaccination against diphteria:

Vaccination against tetanus:

Vaccination against pertussis:

In vaccination against viral hepatitis B (VHB) is used:

Vaccination against viral hepatitis B (VHB):

Active immunization against viral hepatitis B (VHB) is performed:

Vaccination against infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib):

Vaccination against poliomyelitis:

Vaccination against measles:

Vaccination against mumps:

Vaccination against rubella:

Vaccination against pneumococcal infections:

Vaccination against influenza:

Passive immunization is applied:

Heterologous (animal globulins):

Homologous (human) imunoglobulins:

In prophylaxis of viral hepatitis A is used:

Decontamination is a complex of measures:

Term decontamination concerns following approaches:

Decontamination involves measures oriented on:

Disinfection is a complex of measures that destroy:

Sterilization is defined as a process that destroys:


Antisepsis means:

Preventive disinfection involves:

Disinfection in a focus of infection:

Physical methods of sterilization used in health service are:

Physical methods of sterilization used in health service are:

Physical methods of disinfection or sterilisation involve:

Physical methods of disinfection in health service involve:

Physical methods of disinfection involve:

Alkalies and strong inorganic acids are generally:

Among alkalies and acids used for disinfection of instruments in dentistry is:

Group of oxidizing agents used in disinfection and sterilization involves:

Out of group of oxidizing agents are:

Group of halogens used in disinfection involves:

Hypochlorites exhibit following properties:

Chloramines are:                                                                                                                             

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate:                                                                                                                                  

Iodine compounds involve:

Iodophors involve:

Out of halogens:

Properties of alcohols used in disinfection:

Out of alcohols generally used in disinfection:

Aldehydes used for decontamination involve:

Glutaraldehyde is generally used:

Glutaraldehyde is used for decontamination:

Formaldehyde is generally used:

Ethylene oxide (EO) is used:

Peracetic acid is:

Preparation Persteril containing 32% of peracetic acid is used for:

Chemosterilization is generally used:

Process of chemosterilization can involve following steps:

Chemical sterilization in central sterilization units is performed using:

For high level disinfection can be used:

Antimicrobial effectiveness of chemicals used in disinfection can be improved by:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are worldwide:

The global burden of Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity is:

The highest mortality rate of coronary heart disease was observed in 2000:

Occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in Eastern Europe is characterized by:

Coronary heart disease and stroke are in the last years responsible for:

Occurence and characteristics of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other atherosclerotic disorders are:

Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are:

Risk factors for atherosclerosis (ATS) are:

Mass strategies for prevention of chronic diseases:

Elevated geographical occurrence of oral cancer is associated with:

Higher occurrence of cancers can be ascribed to folowing risk factors:

The highest worldwide cancer type incidence reported in men around 1985 (Parkin et al. 1993) was:  

The highest worldwide cancer type incidence reported in women around 1985 (Parkin et al. 1993 was:  

Occurrence of oral cancers according to the IARC for 1985:

As primary prevention of cancer can be regarded:

Secondary prevention focuses on:

Population screening in women was found effective for secondary prevention of:

Protective effect in colorectal cancer is known for:

Tertiary prevention of cancer concerns:

Questions Dentistry

1.      Epidemiology and public health - definitions, aims, clinical epidemiology, molecular epidemiology

2.      History of Epidemiology 

3.      Prevention in Epidemiology and Public Health – levels of prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary)

4.      Health programs and strategies, Oral health.

5.      Vaccination programs, eradication and elimination of infections,

6.      Health and illness – health indicators (incidence, prevalence, mortality, age and gender adjusted rates)

7.      Diagnostic tests in epidemiology (normality, screening, sensitivity, specificity)

8.      Decontamination –definitions of disinfection, sterilization, disinsection, rodent control

9.      Sterilization  - physical  methods, chemosterilization

10.  Sterilization methods – advantages and disadvantages

11.  Disinfection – epidemiologic approach, Disinfection in dentistry - methods

12.  Disinfection – physical  methods

13.  Disinfection - chemical methods –alcalies, acids, oxidizing  agents, halogens

14.  Disinfection - chemical methods –alcohols, aldehydes, surfactants, cyclic compounds, high-level   disinfection

15.  Control of disinfection and sterilization, hands disinfection

16.  Disinfection of medical equipment, Department of central sterilization

17.  Disinsection and rodent control – definition, methods      

18.  Vaccination – definition, active and passive immunization, epidemiologic  effects of vaccination

19.  Basic immunologic principles of vaccination

20.  Classification of vaccines, vaccination effects, assessment of vaccination coverage

21.  Administration of vaccines, adverse reactions, contraindications of vaccination

22.  Types of vaccinations

23.  Vaccination of children

24.  Vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis

25.  Vaccination against poliomyelitis, vaccination against rotaviruses

26.  Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae b infections, invasive pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal meningitis

27.  Vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B

28.  Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella-zoster (chickenpox)

29.  Vaccination against tuberculosis, vaccination against influenza

30.  Vaccination of adolescents, vaccination against human papillomavirus

31.  Vaccination of adults

32.  Vaccination in the focus of infection

33.  Vaccination of people in higher risk of exposure

34.  Vaccination of travellers

35.  Passive immunization (heterologous and homologous globulins)

36.  Evolution of pathogenic microorganisms, evolution of infectious diseases in man, causes of changes of infectious diseases

37.  Examples of evolution of infectious diseases, disease emergence and re-emergence

38.  Epidemic process – characteristics (continuity, structure, intensity)

39.  Determinants of  the epidemic process (basic, natural, social)

40.  Sources of infection, sick person with infectious disease

41.  Carriership of pathogenic microorganisms – definition, classification, epidemiologic importance, epidemiologic measures in carriership of pathogenic agents

42.  Carriership in viral hepatitis B, D a C- risk factors, prevention

43.  Carriership in HIV infections –risk factors, prevention

44.  Carriership in typhoid fever and paratyphoids –epidemiologic measures

45.  Animals as sources of infection-etiologic agents of zoonoses, epidemiologic and medical importance of zoonoses

46.  Zoonoses - transmission of infectious agents, control and prevention, zoonoses- occurrence  in Europe

47.  Transmission of infectious diseases - phases, basic groups of infections, routes of


48.  Infections with particular ways of transmission (prenatal, perinatal, transmission by intermediate hosts, occasional, nosocomial, professional infections)

49.  Classification of infectious diseases from epidemiologic aspects, basic groups of infections

50.  Epidemiology of air-borne infections – general characteristics, etiologic agents, sources, transmission

51.  Epidemiological features of air-borne infections, control and prevention

52.   Epidemiology of intestinal diseases - general characteristics, etiologic agents,


53.   Epidemiology of intestinal diseases – main epidemiologic features, control and prevention

54.   Epidemiology of arthropod-borne infections - general characteristics, transmission-biological  vectors and their epidemiological importance

55.   Epidemiology of arthropod-borne infections - epidemiologic features, control, prevention

56.   Epidemiology of infections of the skin and external mucosae - general characteristics, transmission, epidemiological features,

57.           Epidemiology of infections of the skin and external mucosae – control and prevention (measures related  to  source and  transmission, protection of people at risk)

58.   Epidemiology of infections of the skin and external mucosae - main subgroups –

 superficial skin and mucosae infections, wound infections, prevention

59.  Epidemiology of infections of the skin and external mucosae - eye, oral, nasal and aural infections, dental infections, prevention

60.   Sexually transmitted infections- control and prevention

61.   Epidemiology of nosocomial infections – general characteristics, incidence, prevalence,

62.   Nosocomial infections – classification, etiologic agents, risk factors

63.   Nosocomial infections –sources, mechanisms and routes of transmission, localization of  infections, Nosocomial infections in dentistry

64.   Control and prevention of nosocomial infections generally and in dentistry

65.    Principles of control of infectious diseases – elimination and containment of the sources  of   infection (patients, carriers)

66.    Principles of control of infectious diseases - interruption of transmission of infectious agents

67.   Measures in a focus of infection – measures related to sources, contact persons, health education,  environmental  control 

68.  METHODS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY –introduction

69.   DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY- Scope and aims of descriptive epidemiology, System of disease notification.  Disease registries.

70.   DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY- Temporal  and geographic distribution (distribution   in  time and place)

71.   DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY- Personal characteristics. Sources, collection and   processing of data for descriptive epidemiology

72.  DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY- Standardization. Descriptive epidemiological studies, Data presentation.

73. ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY-studies, methods of forming hypotheses, causality of an association - criteria, testing hypothesis, errors, level of significance, confidence interval, bias, confounding

74.   ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY- cross-sectional studies

75.   ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY- case-control studies

76.   ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGY- cohort studies

77.   EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY- clinical and field trials

78.   EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE- definition and aims, performance of surveillance –  phases.

79.   EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE- international surveillance, some examples.

80.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES – classification epidemiological characteristics and importance of cardiovascular diseases.

81.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES - risk factors of cardiovascular diseases

82.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES – prevention of cardiovascular diseases

83.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER - Definition and scope of cancer epidemiology, Cancer  disease classification

84.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER - Sources of data (death certification, cancer registration), Oropharyngeal cancer sites

85.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER - Risk factors

86.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER- World cancer burden (Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence,  Healthy years Life Lost)

87.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER - Cancer by organ site- incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, international  comparisons

88.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER - Prevention of cancer (primary, secondary, tertiary), prevention of cancer in dentistry