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General medicine

Information for students

Information for students of GENERAL MEDICINE:


Subject of Epidemiology is taught in 5th class of General Medicine as the block subject in the summer semester (SS). This means that for each study group the week of practical education is followed by a week of examination, which includes writing test and oral exam.

In the lecture weeks at the beginning of semesters, ongoing lectures are intended for all study groups of a given semester according to the schedule List of lectures within extent of 12 hours. All lectures will be presented in a distance (online) mode in MS Teams.

Practical lessons always takes place in one week of instruction. Teaching consists of completing 5 days i.e. the total 24 hours of compulsory practical training (practicals) in one weeks of instruction for each individual study group according to schedule. List of practicals


In the block of practical sessions the seminar Application of epidemiology in clinical decision-making will be on Wednesday. Students are required to study in detail the attached document before the seminar. At the seminar, there will be a quiz based on the document and then we will work with the text in the groups. Seminar – document for self-study

Following week is designated to preparation for the exam in Epidemiology, which is usually on Thursday and Friday (according to the number of students). As the best form of learning is advisable to study continuously already during the practical training with the possibility to consult problematic issues in seminars and practicals.

All information about compulsory or recommended literature, questions for tests and examination are on the website of the institute.

Conditions for passing the practical training of Epidemiology:

1. The student must complete all the topics included in the content of practical training (5 complete days), thus not even have one absence.

2. The student must actively participate in teaching and engage in training. In case of repeated passivity student can be excluded by teachers from teaching and he/she must compensate for a given part.

3. If a student does not meet these conditions, practical part of teaching is recognized as incomplete and he/she cannot participate in the examination.


 Compensation for participation of students in practical classes:

1. A student who did not complete practical classes in full course and has to replace them, or a part thereof, must in advance, before substituting the classes, arrange it with the teachers responsible for teaching the course (J. Perželová, Dr.). Indicating the reason why he/she could not have completed practicals in the initial period, and in case of acceptance the reason and a vacancy in the teaching room, at the agreed time he/she may substitute teaching.

2. Compensation for practical classes in advance, before the date resulting from the schedule, is possible only in exceptional and serious reasons and for individual study under the Erasmus program, again in agreement with the responsible teacher.


Final examination in Epidemiology

The conditions for entry to the examination of the Epidemiology is passing prerequisites, i.e. examinations of Microbiology and Immunology (verification is done in AIS2) and passing practical training in Epidemiology (100% participation in practical classes). If a student fails to meet these conditions, he/she will not be admitted to the exam in Epidemiology.

Students in the block are registered for the examination via AIS2 after completing practical tuition (usually Friday evening). Block dates of examination are intended only for students of the relevant block and are stated in accordance with the study and examination regulations. In the examination period, there are next dates of the examination stated for students who have not passed or failed the exam in the block dates of examination.

On the  exam day, the students present themselves at the Institute of Epidemiology at 7.15 a.m. and on presentation of the Index they take a written test. Everyone who achieves at least limit test points (70%) is proceeding to the oral examination. Those who do not reach the limit of the points have failed, and will be given grade Fx to AIS2. If a student does not reach the test limit repeatedly in two attempts, in the last third attempt he/she will nevertheless be examined. If a student reaches the limit of the points and fails the oral exam, he/she has not to write the test again. These rules also apply when moving the exam to the next class.

On the oral examination a student draws three questions (General Epidemiology, Special Epidemiology, Chronic Diseases) so that the examination can verify comprehensive students' knowledge of epidemiology( see List of questions to examination).  The  condition for successful completion of the examination is to handle answers to all the questions. A student has the right to prepare a written response, examiner will provide him the necessary time, usually 30 minutes. Cheating during the examination is the reason to discontinue the exam and to Fx evaluation.

Absence at the examination in which the student is enrolled in AIS2 is automatically evaluated by Fx. Registration for an examination and potential cancellation of the examination date, which allows AIS2, is the responsibility of the student. If a student wants to cancel on a date AIS2 already does not permit, may do so in writing, by a letter to the Head of Department. Similarly, if a student wants to apologize the registered term for which he did not took part in exam, he may do so within 5 days after the examination by a letter to the Head of the Institute, or bring a proof of the visit of the attending physician.

Compulsory textbooks

Epidemiology methods

Špaleková, M. (Ed.) : EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR STUDY OF PUBLIC HEALTH - Vol. 1, 1. vydanie, Comenius University in Bratislava, 2015, 162 s, ISBN: 978-80-223-3933-9

Špaleková, M.  (Ed.) : EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR STUDY OF PUBLIC HEALTH - Vol. 2, 1. vydanie, Comenius University in Bratislava, 2015, 86 s, ISBN: 978-80-223-3934-6



Questions for tests

Goals of epidemiology are:

Epidemiology integrates knowledge of medical disciplines:

Epidemiologic transition means:

Molecular epidemiology:

Epidemiology is different from clinical medicine:

Era of epidemiology of infectious diseases:

Era of epidemiology of non-communicable chronic diseases:

Levels of prevention in epidemiology:

Examples of primary prevention:

Primary prevention is:

Tertiary prevention is:

Elimination of the disease:

Eradication of the disease:

Health according to WHO definition  is:

Gaussian distribution of values:

Screening tests:

Sensitivity of screening test is:

Incidence rate is:

Prevalence rate is:

Mortality rate is:

Perinatal mortality rate:

Neonatal mortality rate:

Infant mortality rate:

Life expectancy:

Case-fatality rate:

The disease burden indicators:

Decontamination is a complex of measures:  

Term decontamination concerns following approaches:

Disinfection is a complex of measures that destroy:

Sterilization is defined as a process that destroys:


Antisepsis means:

Preventive disinfection involves:

Disinfection in a focus of infection:

Physical methods of sterilization used in health services are:

Physical methods of disinfection or sterilisation involve:

Physical methods of disinfection involve:

Alkalies and strong inorganic acids are:

Among antiseptics are:

Group of oxidizing agents used in disinfection and sterilization involves:

Out of group of oxidizing agents are:

Group of halogens used in disinfection involves:

Hypochlorites exhibit following properties:

Chloramines are:

Iodine compounds involve:

Iodophors involve:

Properties of alcohols used in disinfection:

Alcohols generally used in disinfection:

Aldehydes used for decontamination involve:

Glutaraldehyde is generally used:

Glutaraldehyde is used for decontamination:

Formaldehyde is generally used:

Ethylene oxide (EO) is used:

Peracetic acid is:

Preparation Persteril containing 32% of peracetic acid is used for:

Chemosterilization is generally used:

Process of chemosterilization can involve following steps:

For high level disinfection can be used:

Physical control of sterilization means:

Chemical control of disinfection and sterilization:

Biological control of sterilization:

Common washing:

Hygienic disinfection:

Transient microflora:



Department of central sterilization:

Functions and activities in Department of central sterilization are:

Disinsection is:

Disinsection is a complex of measures aiming at reduction and control of:

Prophylactic approach in disinsection and vector control means:

Rodent control:

Repressive measures of rodent control are:

Specific long lasting immunity could be acquired by:

Active immunity is introduced by:

Result of active immunization is:

Immunity of the population can be acquired by:

Passive immunity is:

Why vaccination is important?

How many vaccines have been licenced till now?

Long-term active vaccination against certain infection leads to:

What are epidemiologic effects of vaccination?

Herd immunity is:

Vaccination coverage is:

Pockets of unimmunized individuals are:

Effectiveness of vaccination against specific disease is calculated:

Immune response depends on:

Good immunogens are:

Immunogenicity of the vaccine:

Classification of vaccines includes:

Inactivated subunit vaccines are:

Following vaccines are live atenuated:

Among inactivated/killed vaccines are:

Among live vaccines are:

Vaccines administered by i.m. or s. c. route:

Vaccines administered by oral route:

Klled vaccines and immunoglobulins could be administered simultaneously in:

Simultaneously could be administered:

Adverse reactions of vaccination could be:

Contraindications of vaccination:

Measurement of vaccination coverage is performed by:

Types of vaccinations are:

Vaccination of children:

Vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis:

Vaccine against poliomyelitis:

Primary vaccination against Haemophilus  influenzae b:

Vaccination against pneumococci:

Vaccination against meningococcal meningitis:

Vaccination against VHB (hepatitis B):

Vaccination against measles:

Vaccination against mumps:

Vaccination against rubella:

Vaccination against varicella – zoster:

Vaccination against tuberculosis:

Vaccination against hepatitis A:

Vaccination against rotaviruses:

Vaccination against influenza:

Vaccination against human papillomavirus:

Vaccination of adolescents – indications:

Vaccination of adults – indications:

Vaccination in adulthood:

Vaccination of pregnant women:

Vaccination in the focus of infection:

Recommended vaccination of professionally exposed persons:

Vaccination of people at special risk:

People with special behaviour manners:

Vaccination of travellers is recommended:

Vaccination before travelling abroad:

Passive immunization:

Homologous human hyperimmunne (specific) globulin is:

Heterologous hyperimmune serum:

Evolution of infectious diseases:

According to their pathogenic properties, following groups of microorganisms can be distinguished:

Opportune microorganisms being:


Obligatory pathogenic microorganisms:

Evolution of infectious diseases being conditioned by:

Size of population and its density being critical in the emergence and spread of infections such as:

Among important factors on the side of the host causing emergence of infectious diseases  being:

Environmental factors in wider meaning influencing occurrence of infectious diseases can involve:

Among environmental factors in wider meaning which influenced the spread of infectious diseases being:

Xenozoonoses can occur:

Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms cause:

Comensals (saprophyts):

Essential characteristics of epidemic process are:

Epidemic process is continuing change of hosts appearing from external view as:

Eradication of smallpox was declared by WHO in:

Structure of epidemic process of an infectious disease:

How many main structural forms of the epidemic process may be distinguished?

Characteristics of measles, influenza or smallpox are:

Characteristics of scarlet fever, diphtheria or meningococcal meningitis are:

Index of contagiosity can be calculated by following formula:

Out of 100 nonimmune persons exposed to measles about 99 will contract the disease. Index of contagiosity of measles is:

Occurrence of infection according to intensity of epidemic process could be:

The lowest degree of incidence of a certain disease in a given region and time, when singular cases without any apparently association in time and place occur is expressed by the term:

Indigenous, naturally occurring disease associated with a certain region by natural or social determinants is characterized by the term:

Clusters are:

Basic determinants of epidemic process are:

Natural conditions that could affect occurrence of infectious diseases:

The occurrence of what infections are the highest in  warm months:

Natural focus of infection is defined as:

Natural focus of infection is typical for:

Social factors influencing the occurrence of infectious diseases are:

Increasing travelling into countries with a lower health standard is associated with higher risk of infections like:

Sources of infection:

Microorganism could be for man:

Sick person with infectious disease is:

Sick person compare to carrier:

Measures against sources are:

Carrier of pathogenic germs:

Chronic carriership occurs in:

Epidemiologic measures at chronic carriership of pathogenic microorganisms are:

From donorship of blood and other biologic material are excluded persons who are:

Epidemiologic measures in case of chronic carriership of typhoid fever include:

Hepatitis B could be transmitted by:

Hepatitis C could be transmitted by:

Carriership in HIV infection is:

Sources of zoonoses are:

Zoonoses are determined by following characteristics:

Infections with natural focality are:

Salmonelloses are transmitted on man by:

Among the most common zoonoses transmitted to man in Europe in 2012 are:

Measures for interruption of transmission of zoonoses are:

Prevention of zoonoses includes:

Transmission of infectious diseases depends on:

First phase of transmission:

Surviving of pathogenic microorganisms in environment is influenced by:

First phase of transmission:

Second phase of transmission of infections:

Third phase of transmission of infections:

Vertical transplacental transmission is well known in:

The most important perinatal infections are caused by:

Prenatal infections are:

In what trimester is the highest risk of congenital infections?

Prenatal infection is:

Perinatal infection is:

Epidemiologic classification of infectious diseases:

Classification of infectious diseases according to basic routes of transmission:

Classification of infectious diseases from epidemiological aspects is based on:

Air-borne infections are characterized by:

Etiologic agents of air-borne infections

Seasonal influenza

For emerging airborne infections are responsible:

Sources of air-borne infections can be:

Air-borne infections are transmitted by:

Droplet transmission could be:

Air-borne infections can be transmitted:

Air-borne infections are characterized by:

Periodicity in air-borne infections:

Seasonality in air-borne infections:

Air-borne infections:

The most effective epidemiologic measures to control air-borne diseases are:

Transmission of airborne infections can be reduced by:

Prevention of airborne infections by vaccination:

Intestinal infections are:

Among intestinal infections are:

The main features of intestinal infections are:

The leading causes of intestinal infections are:

The leading pathogens of intestinal infections out of bacteria is:

The leading pathogen of intestinal infections out of viruses is:

Routes of transmission of intestinal infections are:

Intestinal infections could be transmitted by:

Explosive epidemics are characteristic for:

At high risk of intestinal infections are:

The highest occurrence of intestinal infections is:

Rotaviral infections:

Seasonal distribution of intestinal infections is associated with:

Preventive measures of intestinal infections are:

Control of the source of intestinal infections include:

Vaccinations against which intestinal infections are very effective?

Arthropode-borne infections are characterized by:

Ticks transmit etiologic agents causing:

Mosquitoes transmit etiologic agents causing:

Measures for interruption of transmission of zoonoses are:

Lyme borreliosis is transmitted to man by:

Tick-borne encefalitis is transmitted on man by:

Following infections are transmitted by vectors:

Among infections of the skin and external mucosae are:

Infections of the skin and external mucosae are transmitted by:

Basic prevention measures in infections of the skin and external mucosae are:

Hospital-acquired infections

Nosocomial infections

Incidence of nosocomial infections is icreased by:

Incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) can be calculated as:

Prevalence of nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) can be calculated as:

Prevalence of nosocomial infections is :

Surveillance of nosocomial infections:

Prevalence of nosocomial infections in Europe:

Exogenous nosocomial infections are caused by transmission of:

Endogenous nosocomial infections are caused by:

Specific nosocomial infections can be transmitted by:

Nonspecific nosocomial infection is:

Agents in etiology of nosocomial infections can be:

Bacteria in etiology of nosocomial infections are:

Viruses in etiology of nosocomial infections (NI) are:

Risk for acquiring of nosocomial infection (NI)

Sources of nosocomial infection can be:

Transmission of nosocomial infections can be:

Source of nosocomial infection can be:

Exogenous transmission of nosocomial infection may occur by:

Endogenous transmission of nosocomial infection may occur by:

Most common specific nosocomial infections sites are:

About common nosocomial infections sites is true:

Preventive epidemiologic measures of nosocomial infections include:

About common nosocomial infections sites is true:

Preventive epidemiologic measures of nosocomial infections include:

General measures in control of infectious diseases are targeted at:

Following infections are transmitted by vectors:

Ticks transmit etiologic agents causing:

Mosquitoes transmit etiologic agents causing:

Measures for interruption of transmission of zoonoses are:

General principles in the control of infectious diseases are:

Repressive measures are performed:

Among epidemiologic methods are:

Purpose of descriptive epidemiology is:

Epidemiologic case-control study is also called:

Cohort epidemiologic study is also called:

Cross-sectional study is:

Risk factor on disease is:

Relative risk is estimated:

Experimental study:

Surveillance is:

Which of the following represents descriptive epidemiology?

Which of the following represents analytic epidemiology?

The likelihood that an observed association is due to chance (random error) is assessed by:

By convention, an association/comparison is considered statistically significant if

Which of the answers given below considering bias is/are correct?

A confounder

Which of the answers given below considering cross-sectional studies is/are correct?

Which of the following studies can be considered as prospective study?

Relative risk

Which of the following criteria are used to assess the possible causality of an association?

A relative risk (RR) value of 1.0 indicates

Which of the answers given below considering attributable risk (AR) do you believe is correct?

Classically, maximal p-value to be considered statistically significant is :

New railway workers free of cardiovascular disease are asked about their smoking history. Smoker and non-smokers are subsequently followed up for 5 years and compared in relation to the development of myocardial infarction. Which type of analytic study it is?

In the cohort study A, 80 myocardial infarction (MI) cases were observed among 1000 smokers and 40 MI cases among 1000 non-smokers. In the cohort study B, incidence of MI was 6 MI cases among 1000 smokers and 3 MI cases among 1000 non-smokers. Which of the following is true?

Personal history of smoking in patients admitted to a hospital for lung cancer was compared to personal history of smoking in patients admitted to the hospital for reasons different from lung cancer. What type of analytic study is this?

Which of the sentences below do you believe are true about case-control study?

Which of the sentences below do you believe are true about randomized controlled clinical trial?

Clinical trial is

Non-communicable diseases were causes of death:

Cardiovascular diseases caused deaths in 2011:

Two major killers worldwide are:

The leading causes of DALYs lost worldwide in 2020 (projected):

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are worldwide:

The global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity is:

What is the main cause of death globally?

Occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in Eastern Europe (incl. ex-USSR countries) is characterized by:

Variations in incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases:

Coronary heart disease and stroke are in the last years responsible for:

Which of the sentences below are true about coronary heart disease (CHD)?

Occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other atherosclerotic disorders are associated:

In populations with declining stroke mortality the decrease is attributed to:

In populations with increasing stroke mortality this is attributed to:

Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and other atherosclerotic disorders:

Ethnicity is linked to risk for cardiovascular disease:

Main cardiovascular risk factors are:

Differences in cardiovascular risk have been noted in European populations. Which of the following is true:

Non-modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease are?

Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease are?

Tobacco dependence as risk factor of many chronic diseases:

Risk factors for atherosclerosis (ATS) are:

Importance of physical activity for cardiovascular diseases:

Mass strategies for prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD):

High risk strategies for prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases:

Changing in patterns of eating in prevention of cardiovascular diseases means:

Smoking control/ cessation include:

Protective factors for atherosclerosis:

Importance of physical activity for cardiovascular diseases:

Which of the sentences below are true about prevention of cardiovascular diseases?

Smoking control/ cessation include:

Cancer epidemiology is a scientific discipline that studies:

Disease classification in cancer epidemiology is based mostly on:

Tumours in situ in cancer disease classification:

Sources of data in cancer epidemiology involve mainly:

Data on the occurrence of cancer in the general population:

International Agency for Research of Cancer (IARC) in the series Cancer Incidence in Five Continents uses:

Cancer arises as a result of interactions between genetic factors of an individual and:

Cancer risk factors worldwide involve mainly:

Tobacco use is a single most important risk factor causing:

Among risk factors for lung cancer being:

Important biological risk factors for cancer in low- and middle-income countries being:

Infections are known to be related mainly to the occurrence of following cancers:

Viral infections are related to the occurrence of:

Bacterial infections are related to the following cancers:

Parasitic infections such as:

In more developed world regions (according to WHO 2012 estimates ) being higher:

Among most common cancers in the world (according to WHO 2012 estimates) being:

Folowing colorectal cancer data according to 2012 WHO estimates are correct:

Prostate cancer is predominant mainly in:

Cervical cancer mortality rates according to WHO 2012 estimates:

Primary prevention of cancer involves:

Secondary prevention of cancer involves:

Teriary prevention of cancer involves:

Primary prevention of cancer involves:

Chronic respiratory diseases include:

Diffuse parenchymatic lung diseases:

Chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary diseases are:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD):

Pathophysiological components of  COPD:

COPD symptoms are:

Risk factors for COPD:

Classification of COPD is based on:

Prevention of COPD include:

Asthma is:

Risk factors for asthma are:

Bronchiectasis - conditions to its development:

Diabetes is NOT a main cause of:

Diabetes increases risk of cardiovascular mortality about:

Main cause of death in diabetic patients is:

Of all those with diabetes, type 1 diabetes accounts approximately for:

Type 1 diabetes is predominant in :

Viral infections are related to incidence of:

Of all those with diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts approximately for:

Type 2 diabetes is predominant in:

Mr. Brown is 45 years old British man with recently recognised diabetes. What is the most probable type of diabetes in this particular patient?

Costas Zorba is 7 years old Greek, 130 cm tall and with 45 kilograms of weight, with recently diagnosed diabetes.  What is the most probable type of diabetes in this particular patient?

John Brown is a recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes patient. Which of the following is most likely true?

Which of the following related to type 2 diabetes is NOT true?

What is the current global comparative prevalence of diabetes?

Prevalence of type 2 diabetes is about 4% in rural Tunisia and about 27% in United Arab Emirates. Based on this, you can predict that:

The highest incidence rate for type 1 diabetes in children (0-14 years) is in:

Which of the following is true about type 1 diabetes:

Which of the following is true about type 2 diabetes (T2D):

Which of the following is true about prevention of diabetes:

People with diabetes often develop major complications such as:

Complications and health related problems of diabetes mellitus:

Prevention of diabetes mellitus includes:

Questions General medicine


1. Epidemiology and public health - definitions, aims, clinical epidemiology, molecular epidemiology

2.  Prevention in Epidemiology and Public Health – levels of prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary 

3.   Health programs and strategies.

4.   Vaccination programs, eradication and elimination of infections

5.   Health indicators (incidence, prevalence, mortality, case fatality, standardization) 

6.   Health indicators (burden of disease, DALY, YLL, YLD) 

7.   Diagnostic tests in epidemiology (normality, screening, sensitivity, specificity) 

8.    Decontamination – definitions of disinfection, sterilization, disinsection, rodent control

9.    Sterilization methods – advantages and disadvantages

10.   Disinfection methods – advantages and disadvantages

11.   Control of disinfection and sterilization, hands disinfection

12.   Disinfection of medical equipment, Department of central sterilization

13.   Vaccination – definition, active and passive immunization 

14.   Epidemiologic  effects and basic immunologic principles of vaccination 

15.   Classification of vaccines

16.   Administration of vaccines, adverse reactions, contraindications of vaccination

17.   Types of vaccinations

18.   Vaccination of children

19.   Vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis

20.   Vaccination against poliomyelitis

21.   Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae b infections, invasive pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal meningitis 

22.   Vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B

23.   Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella-zoster (chickenpox) 

24.   Vaccination against tuberculosis

25.   Vaccination against rotaviruses

26.   Vaccination against influenza

27.   Vaccination  against human papillomavirus 

28.   Vaccination of adolescents

29.   Vaccination of adults

30.   Vaccination in the focus of infection

31.   Vaccination of people in higher risk of exposure

32.   Vaccination of travellers

33.   Epidemic process – characteristics (continuity, structure, intensity) 

34.   Determinants of  the epidemic process (basic, natural, social)

35.   Sources of infection, sick person with infectious disease

36. Carriership of pathogenic microorganisms – definition, classification, epidemiologic importance

37.   Epidemiologic measures in carriership of pathogenic agents

38.   Carriership in viral hepatitis B, D a C, measures 

39.   Carriership in HIV infections –risk factors, prevention 

40.   Carriership in typhoid fever and paratyphoids –epidemiologic measures

41.   Animals as sources of infection-etiologic agents of zoonoses

42.   Epidemiologic and medical importance of zoonoses

43.   Zoonoses - transmission of infectious agents, control and prevention

44.  Transmission of infectious diseases - phases, basic groups of infections, routes of transmission

45. Infections with particular ways of transmission (prenatal, perinatal, transmission by intermediate hosts, occasional, nosocomial, professional infections)

46.  Classification of infectious diseases from epidemiologic aspects, basic groups of infections

47. Epidemiology of air-borne infections – general characteristics, etiologic agents, sources, transmission, control and prevention

48.  Epidemiology of intestinal diseases - general characteristics, etiologic agents, transmission,  control and prevention

49.  Epidemiology of arthropod-borne infections - general characteristics, transmission- biological  vectors and their epidemiological importance,  control and prevention 

50. Epidemiology of infections of the skin and external mucosae - general characteristics,transmission, epidemiological features, control and prevention

51.   Sexually transmitted infections- control and prevention 

52.   Epidemiology of nosocomial infections – general characteristics, incidence, prevalence,

53.   Nosocomial infections – classification, etiologic agents, risk factors

54.  Nosocomial infections –sources, mechanisms and routes of transmission, localization of infections

55.   Control and prevention of nosocomial infections               

56.   Principles of control of infectious diseases – elimination and containment of the sources   of   infection (patients, carriers)

57.   Principles of control of infectious diseases - interruption of transmission of infectious agents

58.  Measures in a focus of infection – measures related to sources, contact persons, health education,  environmental  control 

59.   Methods in epidemiology – description and analysis, use in practice

60.   Descriptive epidemiology - scope and aims of descriptive epidemiology

61.  Descriptive epidemiology - temporal  and geographic distribution (distribution in  time and place)

62.  Descriptive epidemiology - personal characteristics. Sources, collection and processing of data for descriptive epidemiology

63.   Descriptive epidemiology- system of disease notification.  Disease registries.

64. Descriptive epidemiology - standardization. Descriptive epidemiological studies . Data presentation.

65.   Analytic epidemiology - studies, methods of forming hypotheses, causality of an association - criteria, testing hypothesis, errors, level of significance, confidence  interval, bias, confounding

66.   Analytic epidemiology- cross-sectional studies – design, strentghs and weaknesses

67.   Analytic epidemiology- case-control studies - design, odds ratio

68.   Analytic epidemiology- cohort studies - design, risk ratio,

69.   Experimental epidemiology - clinical and field trials – design, use in practice

70.   Epidemiologic surveillance - definition and aims, performance of surveillance –  phases.

71.   Epidemiologic surveillance- international surveillance, some examples.

72.   Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases – clasification

73.   Epidemiological  characteristics and importance of cardiovascular diseases.

74.   Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases - risk factors of cardiovascular diseases

75.   Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases – prevention of cardiovascular diseases

76. Epidemiology of cancer - definition and scope of cancer epidemiology, Cancer  disease classification 

77.   Epidemiology of cancer - sources of data (death certification, cancer registration), risk factors 

78.   Epidemiology of cancer - world cancer burden (incidence, mortality, prevalence, Healthy years Life Lost)

79.   Epidemiology of cancer - cancer by organ site- incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, international  comparisons, prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary). 

80. Epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- epidemiology 

81.  Epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- risk factors and prevention

82.  Epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases – Asthma, Bronchiectasis - epidemiology, risk factors, prevention 

83.   Epidemiology of diabetes - classification and pathophysiology

84.   Epidemiology of diabetes- Type 1 diabetes mellitus, risk factors and prevention

85.   Epidemiology of diabetes - Type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors and prevention