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Study rules and integral organization

Study of Pathological Physiology

Study of Pathological Physiology consists of  mandatory practical lessons and optional lectures. All information concerning the study, as well as required and recommended literature can be found on the web page of the Institute. As the best form of study we recommend continuous study with the possibility to discuss specific  problems on seminars and practical lessons. Students are prepared for all the seminars based on topics, listed in the schedule, that are essential information for them. The problem mastering is verified during the seminars by the teacher with rising questions orally or in a written test form. Tests include questions from Physiology and Biochemistry as well.

Criteria for completion of the practical study from Pathological Physiology are as follow:

  1. The student can have 1 absence without excuse and 2 more absences with written excuse, under the condition of being examined from given topic by the responsible teacher during the 13th week of the semester, but latest till one month after the education has finished. The date of the compensation will then be set up by the responsible teacher. The student who doesn’t take part in the compensatory practices from any reason without an apology doesn’t comply with the conditions necessary for acceptance of practical education. If the student has 4 or more absences, only the head of the department can authorize its compensation during the 13th week of the semester. For compensation within this extent the foreign students pay over the stipulated tuition fee (15.00 € per each compensated hour in the cash-desk of the FMCU in advance). If the student has 6 and more absences it is not possible to give him the credits and the student is obliged to retake the course within its full extent (according to the FMCU Dean's Regulation No. 3/2010 - http://www.fmed.uniba.sk/index.php?id=6233)

  2. The student must successfully pass three tests during each semester, the evaluation minimum 60 points for each test.

  3. The final course evaluation  (former credit) is carried out by calculating the average of obtained points in three tests (and concerning the activity in particular course):
    A    93 - 100 points
    B    85 - 92 points 
    C    77 - 84 points 
    D    69 - 76 points 
    E    60 - 68 points 
    Fx  less than  60 points

  4. Each test can be written up to three times (1+2 repetition).

  5. If the student does not meet the listed criteria, the study will not be considered.  

Requirements for student´s attendance at seminars and practical lessons

  • Students who are on the list for seminars according the timetable are favoured.

  • Student who wants to substitute the class has to announce the lecturer his intention to substitute and inform the lecturer about the reason for the substitution. If the teacher accepts the reason and has free places in the seminar room, teacher may approve the substitution.

  • If the teacher does not accept the reason for the substitution or has no more free places in the seminar room or does not have sufficient number of tests for all students (in case that test has to be written), teacher will not approve the substitution (take a test) - even if it is Friday or other day, if the student had already had absence before!


    Student has responsibility to verify that he/she met criteria of the final course evaluation. Without fulfilment of the final course evaluation criteria the student will not be admitted to the final exam of Pathological Physiology.


Final exam of Pathological Physiology

Requirements for applying for Pathological Physiology exam are under the condition of completing prerequisites from Physiology and Biochemistry (verification through AIS2). If the student does not meet this criteria, he or she will not be admitted to exam of Pathological Physiology.  
Students, who completed practical study of Pathological Physiology, apply for exam via AIS2. The exam dates are announced consistent with the study and exam rules. On the day of exam students come into the Institute at 8:00 and after they present their index, the test is given. Everyone who obtain more than 60 points are permitted to the oral exam. Those who do not obtain 60 points, fail and Fx will be recorded in AIS2. If student does not obtain 60 points in two tries, he or she will still be examined in the last third try. If student obtains and exceeds 60 points level, however he or she fails on oral exam, on the next date of exam he or she will not need to write the test again. These rules are valid also for examination transferred into the higher grade.

On the oral examination the student will draw out  a triplet of questions, that are prepared in way to revise student´s complex knowledge of Pathological Physiology. Condition for successful passing the exam is to answer all the questions. The student´s right is to prepare written replies, the necessary time provided by examiner is about 30 minutes. The examiner´s right is to ask the student to elaborate one predetermined question in writing that is kept, as the evidence concerning the exam, in the Institute. Cheating during the exam is the reason for exam interruption and Fx grade. On exam day the students have to present their index.

Student signed up for an exam but fails to appear will receive automatically grade of Fx.

Registration for an exam and possible deregistration, permitted by AIS2, is in student´s competency.

If the student wants to deregister the date that can not be permitted by AIS2, he or she can request it according to a written application  to the head of the Institute. Also the student who fails to appear for the exam and wants to apologize, he or she can do so  5 days after the exam with the written letter to the head of the Institute.

Contact person for organisation of lectures:

Prof. Beata Mladosievicova, MD., PhD.

Contact persons for organisation of seminars and practical lessons:

Lucia Setteyová, MD.

Sylabus (questions) of pathologic physiology  (2016)


  General pathophysiology

 1.   Inflammation – acute and chronic (answer to damage of cells, the phases 
        of inflammation, cells and mediators participating on inflammation).

 2.   Fever – definition, pathogenesis, course and symptoms, classification.

 3.   Sepsis (definition, pathogenesis, manifestation).

 4.   Apoptosis (molecular mechanisms, signalization, induction, regulation 
        and timing of apoptosis,  differences from necrosis).

 5.   The task of immune system in the defence of organism (nature, 
        participating cells, regulatory mechanisms).

 6.   Immunodeficiency (primary, secondary).

 7.   Immune hypersensitivity  and autoimmune diseases.

 8.   Monogenic  disorders (cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophies, 
        malignant tumors).

 9.   Cellular signal-transduction pathways.

10.  Dehydration (isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic).

11.  Hyperhydration (isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic).

12.  Disorders of acid-base balance.

13.  Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

14.  Pain (etiology, pathogenesis, biological implications, classification).

15.  Oedema (interstitial, intracellular, pathogenetic factors, biological 

16.  Stress (definition, term stress and stressor, homeostasis, humoral 
        and hemodynamic changes in stress).

17.  Stress and diseases of civilisation (pathogenesis of functional disorders, 
        corticovisceral theory, adaptation to stress).

18.  Ionic inbalance (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium).

19.  Hypoxemia (pathogenesis, types, clinical manifestations, compensatory 

20.  Carcinogenesis (malignant transformation, autonomy of tumours, disorder 
        of growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasive metastatic growth).


  Cardiovascular system

21.   Regulatory mechanism of the contractile heart activity (preload, 
         contractility, afterload, heart rate, synergism of contraction).

22.    Heart failure (definition, classification, pathogenesis, compensatory 
          mechanisms, circle vicious).

23.    Heart failure – pathogenesis of clinical signs and symptoms.

24.    Heart failure – pathophysiological principles of therapy.

25.    Heart failure – right heart failure.

26.    Hypertrophy of the heart (pathogenesis, classification, 
          ambivalent nature, regression).

27.    Cardiomyopathies – (definition, classification, dilated and 
          hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).

28.    Mitral stenosis and insufficiency.

29.    Aortic stenosis and insufficiency.

30.    Congenital heart diseases (without cyanosis and with possible cyanosis).

31.    Congenital heart diseases (with cyanosis).

32.    Endocarditis (infective and rheumatic).

33.    Endothelial dysfunction (etiology, disorders of vascular tone, 
          relation to atherosclerosis).

34.    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (cells, pathomechanisms, clinical 

35.    Stabile and unstable atherosclerotic plaque.

36.    Ischemic heart disease (physiology of coronary circulation, stabile 
          and unstable angina pectoris).

37.    Myocardial infarction ( pathogenesis, manifestation, complications,    

38.    Pathomechanism of the reperfusion heart damage (calcium paradox, 
          oxygen paradox, clinical implications).

39.    Dysrhythmias- supraventricular extrasystole, tachycardia, 
          fibrillation and flutter.

40.    Dysrhythmias – ventricular extrasystoles, tachycardia, 
          fibrillation and flutter.

41.    AV blockades.

42.    Sudden cardiac death (definition, etiology, pathogenesis, arhythmogenic 
          and non-arhythmogenic SCD).

43.    Blood pressure  (determinants  of BP, regulatory mechanisms, 
          arterial pulse).

44.    Systemic arterial hypertension  - essential (formal pathogenesis, 
          etiologic and pathogenetic factors, value of optimal, normal 
          and pathologic blood pressure).

45.    Hypertension and peripheral organ damage (heart, vessels, 
          brain, kidneys).

46.    Secondary hypertensions. 

47.    Collapse (definition, classification, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms).

48.    Shock – pathogenesis, classification, clinical manifestations, 
          compensatory mechanisms.

49.    Hypovolemic shock.

50.    Septic shock.

51.    Cardiogenic shock.

52.    Pulmonary oedema.

53.    Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary embolism.

54.    Cor pulmonale - acute and chronic.

55.    Disorders of venous system (varices, chronic venous insufficiency, 
          superficial and deep thrombosis).

56.    Cardiovascular risk factors (internal, external, classification, 
          score systems).


   Uropoetic system

57.    Proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome.

58.    Hematuria and nephritic syndrome.

59.    Acute renal failure.

60.    Chronic renal failure.

61.    Interstitial nephritis.

62.    Glomerulonephritis.


   Gastrointestinal system

63.    Ulcer disease of stomach and duodenum.

64.    Disorders of oesophagus.

65.    Liver cirrhosis.

66.    Liver insufficiency.

67.    Acute and chronic pancreatitis.

68.    Inflammatory bowel diseases.

69.    Ileus.

70.    Diarrhoea and constipation.

71.    Malabsorption syndrome.


   Central nervous system

72.    Brain ischemia and stroke (ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke, 
          pathogenesis, manifestations).

73.    Intracranial hypertension and oedema.

74.    Degenerative disorders of CNS.


   Endocrine system

75.    Hyperthyroidism.

76.    Hypothyroidism.

77.    Cushing disease.

78.    Adisson disease.

79.    Adrenogenital syndrome.

80.    Pheochromocytoma.

81.    Hyper- and hypoparathyroidism.

82.    Disorders of hypothalamus.

83.    Disorders of hypophysis.

84.    Pubertas and pseudopubertas praecox.

85.    Diabetes mellitus type 1 – classification, manifestations, pathogenesis.

86.    Diabetes mellitus type 2 – classification, manifestations, pathogenesis.

87.    Complications of diabetes mellitus (acute and chronic).

88.    Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

89.    Obesity (definition, pathomechanism, manifestation).

90.    Disorders of calcium metabolism and osteoporosis.


   Respiratory system

91.    Dyspnoe (definition, pathogenesis, classification).

92.    Disorders of ventilation, diffusion and perfusion, ventilation-perfusion 

93.    Respiratory insufficiency  acute and chronic (definition, pathogenesis, 

94.    Pneumonia (definition, classification, pathogenesis and manifestations).

95.    Interstitial lung diseases (definition, classification, pathogenesis,  


   Pathophysiology of blood

96.   Anemic syndrome (definition, classification, pathogenesis and clinical 

97.   Posthemorrhagic  anaemias (acute and chronic). 

98.   Hemolytic anaemias.

99.   Sideropenic anaemias.

100.  Megaloblastic anaemias.

101.  Anaemias in secondary diseases.

102.  Disorders of white blood cells (infections, leucemias,  lymphomas).

103.  Disorders of thrombocytes and vascular purpura.

104.  Disseminated intravascular coagu

Study literature


Study Literature

Hulín, I. et al.:  Pathophysiology, Bratislava: SAP, 1997, 696 s. ISBN 80-88908-07-8.

McPhee, S.J. et al.:  Pathophysiology of Disease: Introduction to Clinical Medicine (McGraw-Hill/LANGE; 2010, 6th edition).

Lazenby, R.B.:  Handbook of Pathophysiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia et al.: Wolters Kluwer, 2011, 898 p. ISBN 978-1-60547-725-1.

Silbernagel, S., Lang, F.:  Color Atlas of Pathophysiology. New York: Thieme Verl., 2000, 406 p. ISBN 80-7169-968-3.

Optional subjects (4th- 5th class)

Critical appraisal and academic writing skills

Winter semester  (24 hours, time-table will be announced)

Max.  10 students

Gestor:  Prof. Beata Mladosievicova, MD, PhD.

  • Medical databases

  • Structure of a scientific paper and internal consistency

  • How to define a scientific problem, aim of the study, research hypotheses and significance of the study

  • Design of studies in relation of type of study (diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic)

  • Statistical analysis and  their interpretation

  • Critical appraisal of selected articles

  • Preparation of own manuscripts


Lectures  -  academic year  2018/2019  -  summer semester
Tuesday:  17.30–19.20  (Library of Institute of Pathological Physiology)

Topic  (date)


Introduction. Core skills of medical students  
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Review, Systematic Review
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Introduction
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Material and Methods 
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication: Results    
Bachárová L, MD, PhD

Scientific publication: Abstract. Academic English
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Oral and poster presentation
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Discussion
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


How to interpret statistics
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Medical databases
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Test, Credits
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

The summer semester lasts from 17th February till 22th May 2020