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General medicine

Study rules and integral organization

Study of Pathological Physiology

Study of Pathological Physiology consists of  mandatory practical lessons and optional lectures. All information concerning the study, as well as required and recommended literature can be found on the web page of the Institute. As the best form of study we recommend continuous study with the possibility to discuss specific  problems on seminars and practical lessons. Students are prepared for all the seminars based on topics, listed in the schedule, that are essential information for them. The problem mastering is verified during the seminars by the teacher with rising questions orally or in a written test form. Tests include questions from Physiology and Biochemistry as well.

Criteria for completion of the practical study from Pathological Physiology are as follow:

  1. The student can have 1 absence without excuse and 2 more absences with written excuse, under the condition of being examined from given topic by the responsible teacher during the 13th week of the semester, but latest till one month after the education has finished. The date of the compensation will then be set up by the responsible teacher. The student who doesn’t take part in the compensatory practices from any reason without an apology doesn’t comply with the conditions necessary for acceptance of practical education. If the student has 4 or more absences, only the head of the department can authorize its compensation during the 13th week of the semester. For compensation within this extent the foreign students pay over the stipulated tuition fee (15.00 € per each compensated hour in the cash-desk of the FMCU in advance). If the student has 6 and more absences it is not possible to give him the credits and the student is obliged to retake the course within its full extent (according to the FMCU Dean's Regulation No. 3/2010 - http://www.fmed.uniba.sk/index.php?id=6233)

  2. The student must successfully pass three tests during each semester, the evaluation minimum 60 points for each test.

  3. The final course evaluation  (former credit) is carried out by calculating the average of obtained points in three tests (and concerning the activity in particular course):
    A    93 - 100 points
    B    85 - 92 points 
    C    77 - 84 points 
    D    69 - 76 points 
    E    60 - 68 points 
    Fx  less than  60 points

  4. Each test can be written up to three times (1+2 repetition).

  5. If the student does not meet the listed criteria, the study will not be considered.  

Requirements for student´s attendance at seminars and practical lessons

  • Students who are on the list for seminars according the timetable are favoured.

  • Student who wants to substitute the class has to announce the lecturer his intention to substitute and inform the lecturer about the reason for the substitution. If the teacher accepts the reason and has free places in the seminar room, teacher may approve the substitution.

  • If the teacher does not accept the reason for the substitution or has no more free places in the seminar room or does not have sufficient number of tests for all students (in case that test has to be written), teacher will not approve the substitution (take a test) - even if it is Friday or other day, if the student had already had absence before!

    Student has responsibility to verify that he/she met criteria of the final course evaluation. Without fulfilment of the final course evaluation criteria the student will not be admitted to the final exam of Pathological Physiology.


Final exam of Pathological Physiology

Requirements for applying for Pathological Physiology exam are under the condition of completing prerequisites from Physiology and Biochemistry (verification through AIS2). If the student does not meet this criteria, he or she will not be admitted to exam of Pathological Physiology.  
Students, who completed practical study of Pathological Physiology, apply for exam via AIS2. The exam dates are announced consistent with the study and exam rules. On the day of exam students come into the Institute at 8:00 and after they present their index, the test is given. Everyone who obtain more than 60 points are permitted to the oral exam. Those who do not obtain 60 points, fail and Fx will be recorded in AIS2. If student does not obtain 60 points in two tries, he or she will still be examined in the last third try. If student obtains and exceeds 60 points level, however he or she fails on oral exam, on the next date of exam he or she will not need to write the test again. These rules are valid also for examination transferred into the higher grade.

On the oral examination the student will draw out  a triplet of questions, that are prepared in way to revise student´s complex knowledge of Pathological Physiology. Condition for successful passing the exam is to answer all the questions. The student´s right is to prepare written replies, the necessary time provided by examiner is about 30 minutes. The examiner´s right is to ask the student to elaborate one predetermined question in writing that is kept, as the evidence concerning the exam, in the Institute. Cheating during the exam is the reason for exam interruption and Fx grade. On exam day the students have to present their index.

Student signed up for an exam but fails to appear will receive automatically grade of Fx.

Registration for an exam and possible deregistration, permitted by AIS2, is in student´s competency.

If the student wants to deregister the date that can not be permitted by AIS2, he or she can request it according to a written application  to the head of the Institute. Also the student who fails to appear for the exam and wants to apologize, he or she can do so  5 days after the exam with the written letter to the head of the Institute.

Contact person for organisation of lectures:

Prof. Beata Mladosievicova, MD., PhD.

Contact persons for organisation of seminars and practical lessons:

Lucia Setteyová, MD.

Sylabus of pathologic physiology 

Sylabus of pathologic physiology  

Study literature


Study Literature

Hulín, I. et al.:   Pathophysiology, Bratislava: SAP, 1997, 696 s. ISBN 80-88908-07-8.

McPhee, S.J. et al.:  Pathophysiology of Disease: Introduction to Clinical Medicine (McGraw-Hill/LANGE; 2010, 6th edition).

Lazenby, R.B.:  Handbook of Pathophysiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia et al.: Wolters Kluwer, 2011, 898 p. ISBN 978-1-60547-725-1.

Copstead, L.C., Banasik, J.L.:  Pathophysiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Saunders, 2009, 1392 p. ISBN 978-1-4160-5543-3.

Porth, C.M.: Pathophysiology:  Concepts of Altered Health States. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004; 1616 p. ISBN 978-0-7817-4988-3.

Silbernagel, S., Lang, F.:  Color Atlas of Pathophysiology. New York: Thieme Verl., 2000, 406 p. ISBN 80-7169-968-3.

Optional subjects (4th- 5th class)

Critical appraisal and academic writing skills

Summer semester  (24 hours, time-table will be announced)

Max.  10 students

Gestor:  Prof. Beata Mladosievicova, MD, PhD.

  • Medical databases

  • Structure of a scientific paper and internal consistency

  • How to define a scientific problem, aim of the study, research hypotheses and significance of the study

  • Design of studies in relation of type of study (diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic)

  • Statistical analysis and  their interpretation

  • Critical appraisal of selected articles

  • Preparation of own manuscripts


Lectures  -  academic year  2019/2020  -  summer semester
Tuesday:  17.30–19.20  (Library of Institute of Pathological Physiology)

Topic  (date)


Introduction. Core skills of medical students  
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Review, Systematic Review
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Introduction
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Material and Methods 
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Scientific publication: Results   
Bachárová L, MD, PhD

Scientific publication: Abstract. Academic English
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Oral and poster presentation
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Scientific publication:  Discussion
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


How to interpret statistics
Bachárová L, MD, PhD


Medical databases
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD


Test, Credits
Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

Textbook Pathophysiology, 1997


      Bratislava, SAP 1997, 696 s.

      ISBN 80-85665-90-5

      Illustration Albín Brunovský  1996   


Contents    ( pp. i - xi ) 

 1   Pathophysiology of the respiratory system   ( I. Hulín )

 1.1  The transport of oxygen to the organism   (pp. 3-7)

 1.2  Pathophysiology of respiration and respiratory organs  (pp. 7-16)

 1.3  Pneumonia   (pp. 16-18)

 1.4  Hypersensitive pneumonitis    (pp. 16-18)

 1.5  Pulmonary disorders caused by harmful substances in the inhaled air    (pp. 16-18)

 1.6  Chronic diseases of the airways    (pp. 16-18)

 1.7  Bronchiectasis    (pp. 16-18)

 1.8  Cystic fibrosis (of the lungs)    (pp. 16-18)

 1.9  Interstitial lung diseases    (pp. 16-18)

 1.10 Respiratory failure    (pp. 32-36)

 1.11 Tumours of the lung and bronchi    (pp. 36-37)

 1.12 Disorders of the diaphragm, thorax, pleura and mediastinum    (pp. 37-43) 


 2   Pathophysiology of blood and haematologic system   ( I. Hulín )

 2.1  Haematopoiesis    (pp. 16-18)

 2.2  Anaemias    (pp. 16-18)

 2.3  Haemostasis and haemocoagulation    (pp. 16-18)

 2.4  Disorders of primary haemostasis    (pp. 16-18)

 2.5  Disorders of haemocoagulation    (pp. 16-18)

 2.6  Disorders of leucocytes    (pp. 16-18)

 2.7  Malignant haematologic diseases   (pp. 81-87) 


 3   Pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system   ( I. Hulín, F. Šimko et al. )

 3.1   Functional characteristics of the cardiac muscle structure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 88-92)

 3.2   Metabolism of cardiac muscle cell   (F. Šimko,  pp. 88-94)

 3.3   Contraction-relaxation cycle   (F. Šimko,  pp. 94-97)

 3.4   Contractile function of myocardium and pumping function of the heart 

         (F. Šimko,  pp. 97-103)

 3.5   Pathomechanism of heart hailure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 103-115)

 3.6   Pathomechanism of cardiomyocyte damage of heart failure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 115-119)

 3.7   Hypertrophy of the heart - mechanism of adaptation to chronic hemodynamic overload

         (F.Šimko,  pp. 119-126)

 3.8   Valvular defects of the heart   (F. Šimko,  pp. 126-135)

 3.9   Cardiomyopathies  (F. Šimko,  pp. 135-139)

 3.10  General adaptation syndrome – stress   (F. Šimko,  pp. 139-145)

 3.11  Congenital heart diseases   (I. Hulín, L. Zlatoš,  pp. 145-150)

 3.12  Infective endocarditis   (I. Hulín,  pp. 150-152)

 3.13  Pathological changes of the blood pressure   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 152-155)

 3.14  Systemic arterial hypertension   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 155-162)

 3.15  Secondary arterial hypertension   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 162-169)

 3.16  Systemic arterial  hypotension   (D. Maasová,  pp. 169-171)

 3.17  Syncope   (D. Maasová,  pp. 171-172)

 3.18  Shock states   (I. Hulín,  pp. 172-183)

 3.19  Septic shock and septicemia   (I. Hulín,  pp. 183-186)

 3.20  Etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis   (L. Zlatoš,  pp. 186-194)

 3.21  Coronary circulation disturbances   (I. Hulín,  pp. 194-196)

 3.22  Ischaemic  heart disease   (I. Hulín,  pp. 196-199)

 3.23  Acute myocardial infarction   (J. Murín,  pp. 199-205)

 3.24  Pathophysiology of the brain circulation   (B. Mladosievičová,  pp. 205-211)

 3.25  The basis of the electrical  action  of the heart   (I. Hulín,  pp. 211-228)

 3.26  The electrophysiological basis in the generation  of cardiac  arrhythmias 

         (I. Hulín,  pp. 228-239)

 3.27  Tachyarhythmia   (I. Hulín,  pp. 239-248)

 3.28  Diseases of the venous system    (J. Holzerová,  pp. 248-253)

 3.29  The role of endothelium in the reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle 

         (R. Sochorová,  pp.  253-256)


 4   Pathophysiology of kidneys and urinary system   ( I. Hulín )

 4.1   Introduction  (pp.  257-258)

 4.2   Basic anatomic notes  (pp.  258-263)

 4.3   Pecularities of renal blood flow  (pp.  263-266)

 4.4   The urine formation  (pp.  266-275)

 4.5   Disturbances of glomerular functions  (pp.  275-279)

 4.6   Acute renal failure  (pp.  279-281)

 4.7   Chronic renal failure   (pp.  281-285)

 4.8   Inflammatory processes of kidneys due to immunopathogenic mechanisms  

         (pp.  285-288)

 4.9   Glomerulopathies  (pp.  288-296)

 4.10  Infections of the urinary tract  (pp.  296-298)

 4.11  Tubulointerstitial renal diseases  (pp.  298-300)

 4.12  Renovascular diseases  (pp.  300-302)

 4.13  Prae-eclampsia and eclampsia  (pp. 302-302)

 4.14  Hereditary renal disease  (pp. 302-304)

 4.15  Urolithiasis  (pp. 304-305)

 4.16  Urinary outflow tract disturbances  (pp. 305-307) 

 4.17  Tumors of urinary tract  (pp. 307-307)


 5   Pathophysiology of endocrine system   ( L. Zlatoš )

 5.1  Types of endocrine disorders  (pp. 308-309)

 5.2  Etiology  of endocrine disorders  (pp. 309-310)

 5.3  Pathophysiology of hypothalamic-hypophyseal system  (pp. 310-325)

 5.4  Pathophysiology of thyroid gland  (pp. 325-356)

 5.5  Patophysiology of parathyroid gland  (pp. 356-366)

 5.6  Pathophysiology of the adrenal glands  (pp. 366-391)

 5.7  Endocrine disorders of the ovaries  (pp. 391-397)

 5.8  Endocrine disorders of the testes  (pp. 397-404)

 5.9  Pathophysiology of the endocrine pancreas  (pp. 404-429)


 6   Pathophysiology of the nervous system   ( M. Bernadič et al. )

 6.1   The basic anatomical  and physiological aspects  (pp. 430-435)

 6.2   Neuronal injury  (pp. 435-437)

 6.3   Neuroglia  (pp. 437-437)

 6.4   The basic etiopathogenetic factors in the nervous system disturbances  (pp. 437-440)

 6.5   Some syndroms occuring upon the injury of the nervous system  (pp. 440-442)

 6.6   Head injuries  (pp. 442-446)

 6.7   Brain edema  (pp. 446-448)

 6.8   Intracranial hypertension  (pp. 448-450)

 6.9   Hydrocephaly  (pp. 450-451)

 6.10  Demyelination diseases  (pp. 451-454)

 6.11  Degenerative  diseases of the CNS  (pp. 454-457)

 6.12  Epilepsy (J. Holzerová)  (pp. 457-464)

 6.13  Disturbances of the oxygen supply to the brain   (pp. 464-466)

 6.14  Cerebral infarction  (pp. 466-467)

 6.15  Intracranial haemorhage  (pp. 467-468)

 6.16  Aging changes and brain tissue atrophy  (pp. 468-468)

 6.17  Infections  (pp. 468-472)

 6.18  Nutritional, toxic and metabolic dysfunctions of the brain (encephalopathies)  

         (pp. 472-475)

 6.19  Tumors of the nervous system  (pp. 475-476)

 6.20  Injury of the  spine  (pp. 476-477)

 6.21  Diseases of the motor neuron  (pp. 477-478)

 6.22  Peripheral nerves  (pp. 478-479)

 6.23  Neuromuscular diseases   (pp. 479-480)

 6.24  Autonomous (vegetative) nervous system (A. Kráľ)  (pp. 480-495)


 7   Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract  ( I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš )

 7.1   Introduction  (I. Ďuriš, I. Hulín)  (pp. 496-497)

 7.2   Oesophagus  (pp. 497-498)

 7.3   Diseases of the oesophagus  (pp. 498-499)

 7.4   Stomach and duodenum (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 499-501)

 7.5   Diseases of the stomach and duodenum  (pp. 501-506)

 7.6   Exocrine pancreas (M. Bernadič)  (pp. 506-508)

 7.7   Impairment of the exocrine function of pancreas (M. Bernadič)  (pp. 508-510)

 7.8   Small intestine (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 510-514)

 7.9   The large intestine   (pp. 514-515)

 7.10  Malabsorption   (pp. 515-517)

 7.11  Diarrhea  (pp. 517-519)

 7.12  Constipation (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 519-522)

 7.13  Intestinal obstruction (M. Turčáni)  (pp. 522-526)

 7.14  Inflammation and other intestinal diseases (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 526-529)

 7.15  Tumours of the GIT  (pp. 529-531)

 7.16  Bleeding from GIT  (pp. 531-533)

 7.17  Abdominal pain  (pp. 533-535)

 7.18  The Liver (D. Maasová)  (pp. 535-540)

 7.19  Pathophysiology of the liver (D. Maasová)  (pp. 540-547)

 7.20  Jaundice (D. Massová)  (pp. 547-552)

 7.21  Diseases of the gallbladder (D. Maasová)  (pp. 552-553)

 7.22  Gastrointestinal hormones (I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 553-556)


 8   Pathophysiology of bones and joints   ( D. Maasová et al. )

 8.1  Introduction  (pp. 557-562)

 8.2  Generalized skeleton disorders   (pp. 562-568)

 8.3  Localized bone disorders  (pp. 568-569)

 8.4  Disorders of joints  (I. Šulková, M. Bakošová)   (pp. 569-576)


 9   Inflammation and fever  ( I. Hulín, M. Ferenčík, V. Štvrtinová, J. Jakubovský )

 9.1  Inflammation   (pp. 577-633)

 9.2  Fever (I.Hulín)  (pp. 634-640)


 10   Pathophysiology of malignant diseases   ( B. Mladosievičová )

 10.1  Carcinogenesis  (pp. 641-646)

 10.2  Cellular oncogenes   (pp. 646-647)

 10.3  Characteristics of cancer cells  (pp. 647-651)

 10.4  Tumor growth and development  (pp. 651-653)

 10.5  Predisposing factors of cancer cells  (pp. 653-653)

 10.6  Characteristics of benign tumors  (pp. 653-654)

 10.7  Pathophysiology of malignant disease  (pp. 654-658)

 10.8  Immune surveillance and cancer  (pp. 658-658)


 11   Fluids and electrolytes   ( H. Sapáková, D. Maasová )

 11.1  Fluids disorders  (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 659-666)

 11.2  Electrolyte balance  and its disturbances  (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 666-674)

 11.3  Disorders of acid- base homeostasis  (D. Maasová, Š. Navarčíková)  (pp. 674-681)


 Index    ( pp. 683 - 696 )

 List of Figures    ( pp. xiii - xv ) 

 List of Tables    ( pp. xvii )

The winter semester 2020/21  lasts from 14th September till 18th December 2020