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General medicine

Organization of Pathophysiology in the summer semester 2021/2022

Organization of Pathophysiology in the summer semester 2021/2022

Study literature

 

Study Literature

 

    • McPhee, S.J. et al.: Pathophysiology of Disease: Introduction to Clinical Medicine (McGraw-Hill/LANGE; 2019, 8th edition).
    • Norris, T.L.: Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 10th ed. Wolters Kluwer 2019; ISBN 978-1-4963-7755-5.
    • Silbernagel, S., Lang, F.: Color Atlas of Pathophysiology. New York: Thieme Verl., 2000, 406 p. ISBN 80-7169-968-3.
    • Hulín, I. et al.: Pathophysiology, Bratislava: SAP, 1997, 696 s. ISBN 80-88908-07-8.

 

 

Optional subjects (4th- 5th class)

Critical appraisal and academic writing skills

Summer semester  (24 hours, time-table will be announced)

Max.  10 students

Gestor:  Prof. Beata Mladosievicova, MD, PhD.

  • Medical databases

  • Structure of a scientific paper and internal consistency

  • How to define a scientific problem, aim of the study, research hypotheses and significance of the study

  • Design of studies in relation of type of study (diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic)

  • Statistical analysis and  their interpretation

  • Critical appraisal of selected articles

  • Preparation of own manuscripts

 

Compulsory optional subject

 

Critical appraisal and academic writing skills

 

Lectures  -  academic year  2021/2022  -  summer semester
Tuesday:  17.30–19.20  (Library of Institute of Pathological Physiology)

1.

Core skills of medical students/Academic communication  1.3.2021

 Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

2.

Academic English/ analysis of mistakes across papers/theses  8.3.2022

 Mladosievičová B, Prof.  MD, PhD

3.

 Scientific publication: Introduction     15.3.2022

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

4.

 Scientific publication:  Material and Methods.    
  22.3.2022   

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

5.

 Scientific publication: Results    29.3.2022 

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

6.

 How to prepare Abstract.  5.4.022

 Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

7.

 Oral and poster presentation    12.4.2022 

 Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

8.

 Discussion    19.4.2022 

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

9.

 How to interpret statistics       26.4.2022   

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

10.

 Scientific Publication: Review article   3.5.2022    

 Bachárová L, MD, DSc.

11.

 Medical databases/Test, Credits      10.5.2022

 Mladosievičová B, Prof, MD, PhD

 


Textbook Pathophysiology, 1997

Hulín et al.:  PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

      Bratislava, SAP 1997, 696 s.

      ISBN 80-85665-90-5

      Illustration Albín Brunovský  1996   

 

Contents    ( pp. i - xi ) 

 1   Pathophysiology of the respiratory system   ( I. Hulín )

 1.1  The transport of oxygen to the organism   (pp. 3-7)

 1.2  Pathophysiology of respiration and respiratory organs  (pp. 7-16)

 1.3  Pneumonia   (pp. 16-18)

 1.4  Hypersensitive pneumonitis    (pp. 16-18)

 1.5  Pulmonary disorders caused by harmful substances in the inhaled air    (pp. 16-18)

 1.6  Chronic diseases of the airways    (pp. 16-18)

 1.7  Bronchiectasis    (pp. 16-18)

 1.8  Cystic fibrosis (of the lungs)    (pp. 16-18)

 1.9  Interstitial lung diseases    (pp. 16-18)

 1.10 Respiratory failure    (pp. 32-36)

 1.11 Tumours of the lung and bronchi    (pp. 36-37)

 1.12 Disorders of the diaphragm, thorax, pleura and mediastinum    (pp. 37-43) 

 

 2   Pathophysiology of blood and haematologic system   ( I. Hulín )

 2.1  Haematopoiesis    (pp. 16-18)

 2.2  Anaemias    (pp. 16-18)

 2.3  Haemostasis and haemocoagulation    (pp. 16-18)

 2.4  Disorders of primary haemostasis    (pp. 16-18)

 2.5  Disorders of haemocoagulation    (pp. 16-18)

 2.6  Disorders of leucocytes    (pp. 16-18)

 2.7  Malignant haematologic diseases   (pp. 81-87) 

 

 3   Pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system   ( I. Hulín, F. Šimko et al. )

 3.1   Functional characteristics of the cardiac muscle structure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 88-92)

 3.2   Metabolism of cardiac muscle cell   (F. Šimko,  pp. 88-94)

 3.3   Contraction-relaxation cycle   (F. Šimko,  pp. 94-97)

 3.4   Contractile function of myocardium and pumping function of the heart 

         (F. Šimko,  pp. 97-103)

 3.5   Pathomechanism of heart hailure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 103-115)

 3.6   Pathomechanism of cardiomyocyte damage of heart failure   (F. Šimko,  pp. 115-119)

 3.7   Hypertrophy of the heart - mechanism of adaptation to chronic hemodynamic overload

         (F.Šimko,  pp. 119-126)

 3.8   Valvular defects of the heart   (F. Šimko,  pp. 126-135)

 3.9   Cardiomyopathies  (F. Šimko,  pp. 135-139)

 3.10  General adaptation syndrome – stress   (F. Šimko,  pp. 139-145)

 3.11  Congenital heart diseases   (I. Hulín, L. Zlatoš,  pp. 145-150)

 3.12  Infective endocarditis   (I. Hulín,  pp. 150-152)

 3.13  Pathological changes of the blood pressure   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 152-155)

 3.14  Systemic arterial hypertension   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 155-162)

 3.15  Secondary arterial hypertension   (H. Sapáková,  pp. 162-169)

 3.16  Systemic arterial  hypotension   (D. Maasová,  pp. 169-171)

 3.17  Syncope   (D. Maasová,  pp. 171-172)

 3.18  Shock states   (I. Hulín,  pp. 172-183)

 3.19  Septic shock and septicemia   (I. Hulín,  pp. 183-186)

 3.20  Etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis   (L. Zlatoš,  pp. 186-194)

 3.21  Coronary circulation disturbances   (I. Hulín,  pp. 194-196)

 3.22  Ischaemic  heart disease   (I. Hulín,  pp. 196-199)

 3.23  Acute myocardial infarction   (J. Murín,  pp. 199-205)

 3.24  Pathophysiology of the brain circulation   (B. Mladosievičová,  pp. 205-211)

 3.25  The basis of the electrical  action  of the heart   (I. Hulín,  pp. 211-228)

 3.26  The electrophysiological basis in the generation  of cardiac  arrhythmias 

         (I. Hulín,  pp. 228-239)

 3.27  Tachyarhythmia   (I. Hulín,  pp. 239-248)

 3.28  Diseases of the venous system    (J. Holzerová,  pp. 248-253)

 3.29  The role of endothelium in the reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle 

         (R. Sochorová,  pp.  253-256)

 

 4   Pathophysiology of kidneys and urinary system   ( I. Hulín )

 4.1   Introduction  (pp.  257-258)

 4.2   Basic anatomic notes  (pp.  258-263)

 4.3   Pecularities of renal blood flow  (pp.  263-266)

 4.4   The urine formation  (pp.  266-275)

 4.5   Disturbances of glomerular functions  (pp.  275-279)

 4.6   Acute renal failure  (pp.  279-281)

 4.7   Chronic renal failure   (pp.  281-285)

 4.8   Inflammatory processes of kidneys due to immunopathogenic mechanisms  

         (pp.  285-288)

 4.9   Glomerulopathies  (pp.  288-296)

 4.10  Infections of the urinary tract  (pp.  296-298)

 4.11  Tubulointerstitial renal diseases  (pp.  298-300)

 4.12  Renovascular diseases  (pp.  300-302)

 4.13  Prae-eclampsia and eclampsia  (pp. 302-302)

 4.14  Hereditary renal disease  (pp. 302-304)

 4.15  Urolithiasis  (pp. 304-305)

 4.16  Urinary outflow tract disturbances  (pp. 305-307) 

 4.17  Tumors of urinary tract  (pp. 307-307)

 

 5   Pathophysiology of endocrine system   ( L. Zlatoš )

 5.1  Types of endocrine disorders  (pp. 308-309)

 5.2  Etiology  of endocrine disorders  (pp. 309-310)

 5.3  Pathophysiology of hypothalamic-hypophyseal system  (pp. 310-325)

 5.4  Pathophysiology of thyroid gland  (pp. 325-356)

 5.5  Patophysiology of parathyroid gland  (pp. 356-366)

 5.6  Pathophysiology of the adrenal glands  (pp. 366-391)

 5.7  Endocrine disorders of the ovaries  (pp. 391-397)

 5.8  Endocrine disorders of the testes  (pp. 397-404)

 5.9  Pathophysiology of the endocrine pancreas  (pp. 404-429)

 

 6   Pathophysiology of the nervous system   ( M. Bernadič et al. )

 6.1   The basic anatomical  and physiological aspects  (pp. 430-435)

 6.2   Neuronal injury  (pp. 435-437)

 6.3   Neuroglia  (pp. 437-437)

 6.4   The basic etiopathogenetic factors in the nervous system disturbances  (pp. 437-440)

 6.5   Some syndroms occuring upon the injury of the nervous system  (pp. 440-442)

 6.6   Head injuries  (pp. 442-446)

 6.7   Brain edema  (pp. 446-448)

 6.8   Intracranial hypertension  (pp. 448-450)

 6.9   Hydrocephaly  (pp. 450-451)

 6.10  Demyelination diseases  (pp. 451-454)

 6.11  Degenerative  diseases of the CNS  (pp. 454-457)

 6.12  Epilepsy (J. Holzerová)  (pp. 457-464)

 6.13  Disturbances of the oxygen supply to the brain   (pp. 464-466)

 6.14  Cerebral infarction  (pp. 466-467)

 6.15  Intracranial haemorhage  (pp. 467-468)

 6.16  Aging changes and brain tissue atrophy  (pp. 468-468)

 6.17  Infections  (pp. 468-472)

 6.18  Nutritional, toxic and metabolic dysfunctions of the brain (encephalopathies)  

         (pp. 472-475)

 6.19  Tumors of the nervous system  (pp. 475-476)

 6.20  Injury of the  spine  (pp. 476-477)

 6.21  Diseases of the motor neuron  (pp. 477-478)

 6.22  Peripheral nerves  (pp. 478-479)

 6.23  Neuromuscular diseases   (pp. 479-480)

 6.24  Autonomous (vegetative) nervous system (A. Kráľ)  (pp. 480-495)

 

 7   Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract  ( I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš )

 7.1   Introduction  (I. Ďuriš, I. Hulín)  (pp. 496-497)

 7.2   Oesophagus  (pp. 497-498)

 7.3   Diseases of the oesophagus  (pp. 498-499)

 7.4   Stomach and duodenum (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 499-501)

 7.5   Diseases of the stomach and duodenum  (pp. 501-506)

 7.6   Exocrine pancreas (M. Bernadič)  (pp. 506-508)

 7.7   Impairment of the exocrine function of pancreas (M. Bernadič)  (pp. 508-510)

 7.8   Small intestine (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 510-514)

 7.9   The large intestine   (pp. 514-515)

 7.10  Malabsorption   (pp. 515-517)

 7.11  Diarrhea  (pp. 517-519)

 7.12  Constipation (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 519-522)

 7.13  Intestinal obstruction (M. Turčáni)  (pp. 522-526)

 7.14  Inflammation and other intestinal diseases (I. Hulín, I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 526-529)

 7.15  Tumours of the GIT  (pp. 529-531)

 7.16  Bleeding from GIT  (pp. 531-533)

 7.17  Abdominal pain  (pp. 533-535)

 7.18  The Liver (D. Maasová)  (pp. 535-540)

 7.19  Pathophysiology of the liver (D. Maasová)  (pp. 540-547)

 7.20  Jaundice (D. Massová)  (pp. 547-552)

 7.21  Diseases of the gallbladder (D. Maasová)  (pp. 552-553)

 7.22  Gastrointestinal hormones (I. Ďuriš)  (pp. 553-556)

 

 8   Pathophysiology of bones and joints   ( D. Maasová et al. )

 8.1  Introduction  (pp. 557-562)

 8.2  Generalized skeleton disorders   (pp. 562-568)

 8.3  Localized bone disorders  (pp. 568-569)

 8.4  Disorders of joints  (I. Šulková, M. Bakošová)   (pp. 569-576)

 

 9   Inflammation and fever  ( I. Hulín, M. Ferenčík, V. Štvrtinová, J. Jakubovský )

 9.1  Inflammation   (pp. 577-633)

 9.2  Fever (I.Hulín)  (pp. 634-640)

 

 10   Pathophysiology of malignant diseases   ( B. Mladosievičová )

 10.1  Carcinogenesis  (pp. 641-646)

 10.2  Cellular oncogenes   (pp. 646-647)

 10.3  Characteristics of cancer cells  (pp. 647-651)

 10.4  Tumor growth and development  (pp. 651-653)

 10.5  Predisposing factors of cancer cells  (pp. 653-653)

 10.6  Characteristics of benign tumors  (pp. 653-654)

 10.7  Pathophysiology of malignant disease  (pp. 654-658)

 10.8  Immune surveillance and cancer  (pp. 658-658)

 

 11   Fluids and electrolytes   ( H. Sapáková, D. Maasová )

 11.1  Fluids disorders  (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 659-666)

 11.2  Electrolyte balance  and its disturbances  (H. Sapáková)  (pp. 666-674)

 11.3  Disorders of acid- base homeostasis  (D. Maasová, Š. Navarčíková)  (pp. 674-681)

 

 Index    ( pp. 683 - 696 )

 List of Figures    ( pp. xiii - xv ) 

 List of Tables    ( pp. xvii )

Exam questions of Pathological Physiology

Exam questions of Pathological Physiology