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General Medicine

Summer semester 2023/2024

Summer semester 2023/2024
The course pathology 2 for students of general medicine starts on 19th February 2024

1. Requirements for final exam attendance in course pathology 2:

- Successful completion of the prerequisites exam: anatomy and histology
- Completing the course Pathology 1 with the evaluation A-E
- Attendance at all classes in histopathology.
- Attendance at all autopsy classes.
- To pass 2 written control tests with minimum score of 60 points.

To pass the written test which is part of final exam with minimum score of 75 points.

Student who failed the requirements in the summer semester of the previous academic year and has transferred the course to this year has to attend the whole course in full extent in this academic year.

2. Compensation of classes

It is possible to compensaty a histopathology class in a two-week period, when the same topic is being taught, after agreement from both teachers. 

Autopsy practicals can be compensated throughout the entire semester.

Students can compensate no more than 2 autopsy and 2 histopathology classes in a semester.


The compenstion of missing classes is regulated by the Dean's Regulation No. 3/2010 (on the conditions for performance of the compensating tuition and payment of tuition fee at compensatory practical training for foreign students - self payers).

3. Tests during the summer semester (obligatory)

Semester tests will be written in person on paper in the Small auditory at Sasinkova 4 during the Pathological anatomy lecture time period, at 19:00.

The tests consist of 25 multiple choice questions, the questions will include all the topics from lectures and histopathology classes until the said date (including), the time limit is 15mins.

Test 1 27.3.2024

Test 2 15.5.2024


4. Evaluation of students in the summer semester:

  • The practical part of the exam (at the last autopsy).
  • Final test (on the day of the final exam). The test, which is part of the final examination, must be written for a minimum of 75 points
  • Oral Exam. The oral exam consists of 3 questions (general pathology, oncology, special pathology) and a description of 1 histopathology specimen (on the day of the exam).

5. Compensatory tests:

Students, who failed the tests during the semester, will have the compensatory terms to write the tests.

Make-up date A: 22.5.2024 at 14:30

Make-up date B: 5.6.2024 at 15:00

Make-up date C: 

Time schedule

Histopathology practicals take place on the 2. floor of New theoretical institutes.

Autopsy practicals take place on the ground floor of the New theoretical institutes. Students do not bring anything with them on autopsies.

Recommended study literature

Harsh Mohan: Textbook of Pathology, 8th Edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical, 2018
Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 10th Edition, ELSEVIER 2020, 1392 s.
Damjanov I.: Atlas of Histopathology, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 2012, 399s.
Sapp P.J.: Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 2 edition, MOSBY 2003, 450s.


Do not buy study materials (reduced syllabus) from your older classmates, as they contain incorrect information, save yourself study time and money :)

Program of seminars for the summer semester 2023/2024

I. The use of molecular biology in pathological anatomy.

II. Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system pathology
Atherosclerosis (L.II.1); Myocardial infarction (L.II.2); Diseminated myofibrosis of the heart (L.II.3); brown induration of lungs  (L.II.4); Lung edema; (L.II.5); Chronic venostasis of the liver (L.II.6); Embolism (L.II.7); Endocarditis (L.II.8); Bronchopneumonia (L.II.9); Pneumonia (L.II.10); SCLC (L.II.11); NSCLC (L.II.12)

III. Gastrointestinal pathology
Pleomorphic adenoma (L.III.1); Gastritis (L.III.2); Carcinoma of stomach (L.III.3); Ulcerative colitis (L.III.4); Crohn’s disease (L.III.5); Celiac disease (L.III.6); Liver cirrhosis (L.III.7); Acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreas (L.III.8)

IV. Uropathology, Neuropathology
Nephrosclerosis (L.IV.1); DM nephropathy (L.IV.2); Glomerulonephritis - postinfective  (L.IV.3); Tubulointerstitial nephritis (L.IV.4); Grawitz tumor (L.IV.5); Urothelial carcinoma (L.IV.6); Meningitis (L.IV.7); Sclerosis multiplex (L.IV.8); Meningeoma (L.IV.9); Glioblastoma (L.IV.10)  

V. Pathology of reproductive organs
Carcinoma of prostate (L.V.1); Seminoma (L.V.2); Carcinoma of uterus (L.V.3); Cervical dysplasia (L.V.4); Carcinoma of cervix (L.V.5); Serous carcinoma of ovary (L.V.6); Fibroadenoma of mammary gland (L.V.7); Ductal carcinoma of breast (L.V.8); Lobular carcinoma of breast (L.V.9)

VI. Pathology of childhood and pregnancy
Wilms tumor (L.VI.1); Neuroblastoma (L.VI.2); ALL (L.VI.3); Hyaline membrane syndrome (L.VI.4); Remnants of pregnancy (L.VI.5); Extrauterine pregnancy (L.VI.6); Mola hydatidosa (L.VI.7); Choriocarcinoma (L.VI.8)

VII. Dermatopathology, Pathology of the endocrine system
Carcinoma of thyroid gland (L.VII.1); Morbus Hashimoto (L.VII.2); Graves’ disease (L.VII.3); Neuroendocrine tumor (L.VII.4); Melanoma (L.VII.5); Naevus (L.VII.6); Psoriasis (L.VII.7); Eczema (L.VII.8)

Program of seminars for the winter semester 2023/2024

1. - 2. week
I. Introduction. Autopsy. Basic histological techniques.  Histological staining (acid, basic, histochemistry). Molecular biology in diagnostic patology.
Study material: pdf.

3. – 4. Week
II. Cell injury and cellular adaptations
hydropic change kidney (Z.II.1); amyloidosis (Z.II.2); amyloidosis + congo red stain (Z.II.3); liver steatosis (Z.II.4); lipomatosis of pancreas (Z.II.5); myocardial hypertophy (Z.II.6); muscle atrophy (Z.II.7); prostate hyperplasia (Z.II.8); lung metaplasia (Z.II.9)
Study material: pdf.

5. – 6.  Week
III. Necrosis, Healing
Coagulation necrosis - anemic renal infarction (Z.III.1); Coagulation necrosis - hemorrhagic lung infarction (Z.III.2); Liquefaction necrosis - encephalomalacia (Z.III.3); Fibrinoid necrosis - polyarteritis nodosa (Z.III.4); Healing of myocardial infarction (Z.III.5); Fibrinous peritonitis in the organization (Z.III.6); Thrombus in the organization (Z.III.7); Granuloma around a foreign body (Z.III.8)
Study material: pdf.

7. – 8. Week
IV. Inflammation
Catarrhal inflammation (Z.IV.1); Influenza (Z.IV.2); Fibrinous pericarditis (Z.IV.3); Brain abscess (Z.IV.4); Appendicitis (Z.IV.5); Pseudomembranous colitis (Z.IV.6); Sarcoidosis (Z.IV.7); TBC - Lungs (Z.IV.8); Actinomycosis (Z.IV.9)
Study material: pdf.

9. – 10. Week
V. Epithelial tumors
Papilloma (Z.V.1); Adenomatous polyp (Z.V.2); Basal-cell carcinoma (Z.V.3); Dysplastic polyp of the large intestine (Z.IV.4); Actinic keratosis (Z.V.5), Epidermal carcinoma (Z.V.6); Colorectal adenocarcinoma G1 ( Z.V.7)
Study material: pdf.

11. – 12. Week
VI. Mesenchymal tumors
leiomyoma (Z.VI.1); leiomyosarcoma (Z.VI.2); cavernous hemangioma (Z.VI.3); capillary hemangioma(Z.VI.4); Kaposi´s sarcoma (Z.VI.5); fibroma (Z.VI.6); fibrosarcoma (Z.VI.7); lipoma (Z.VI.8); liposarcoma (Z.VI.9); osteoma (Z.VI.10); osteosarcoma (Z.VI.11); chondrosarcoma (Z.VI.12)
Study material: pdf.

13. – 14. Week
VII. Hemato-oncology
chronic myeloid leukemia CML (Z.VII.1); Chronic lymphoid leukemia CLL (Z.VII.2); Hodgkin's lymphoma (Z.VII.3); Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma DLBCL (Z.VII.4); plasmocytoma (Z.VII.5); mycosis fungoides (Z.VII.6); essential thrombocytemia (Z.VII.7)
Study material: pdf.


Lectures are held online through Teams EXCEPT the two lectures when semester tests are written (27.3.; 15.5.)! These two lectures are in person in the Small auditory.

Program of practical exercises for the winter and summer semester

Winter semester:

1.-2. Death and postmortal changes.

3.-4. General external and internal inspection of the body. Pathological report and arrangement of diagnoses.

5.-6. Dissection of brain and spinal cord. Macroreactions.

7.-8. Dissection of neck and chest organs.

9.-10. Dissection of liver and urogenital complex.

11.-12. Autopsy of fetuses and children. Dissection of bones.

13.-14. Credit week (recapitulation)

Summer semester

1.-2. Macroscopic findings of brain and spinal cord diseases.

3.-4. Macroscopic findings of neck and chest organ diseases.

5.-6. Macroscopic findings of liver complex diseases.

7.-8. Macroscopic findings of uropoetic system diseases.

9.-10. Macroscopic findings of genital organs diseases.

11.-12. Macroscopic findings of hemopoetic system and RES  diseases.

13.-14. Credit week. Practical examination from autopsy (first part of final exam).

Questions for the final exam (oral exam)

The prerequisites for the final exam are full attendance, passing both semester tests and completion of the practical exam.

The final exam consists of two parts: a written test and an oral exam.

Final written test consists of 25 multiple choice questions, with 4 optional answers. Each student will have a different, computer-generated test. The test will be written in person on paper at 8:00 on the day of the final exam. The time frame for completion of the test is 30 minutes. Minimum number of points for passing the test is 75% (i.e. 75 points from total 100). Every student has the right for 1 regular and 2 retake terms. The test will contain questions from all semester tests from both semesters.

The oral part follows after successfully passing the test (cca 9:00), each student will get 3 questions, one from each of the major categories listed below, and one histopathological slide for evaluation.

Should a student fail all three terms (both retake terms), they will be allowed to attempt the oral part nonetheless.


Oral exam questions:

I. General pathology

1.     Methods in pathology

2.     Death and postmortal changes

3.     Causes and development of disease

4.     Cellular structures and their disorders

5.     Etiology and pathogenesis of cell injury

6.     Cellular adaptations

7.     Reversible cell injury

8.     Cell death

9.     Amyloidosis

10.   Congenital and acquired disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus, glycogenoses)

11.   Congenital and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism (steatosis, lipoidoses)

12.   Endogenous pigments, icterus

13.   Exogenous pigments, pneumoconiosis

14.   Deposition of calcium and urates

15.   Disturbances of blood circulation (heart, vessels, blood)

16.   Hyperaemia (active, passive)

17.   Local anemia (ischemia, infarct)

18.   Shock (etiology, classification)

19.   Thrombosis

20.   Embolism

21.   Edema

22.   Inflammation (general concept)

23.   Course of inflammation

24.   Acute inflammation

25.   Chronic inflammation

26.   Granulomatous inflammation (nonspecific, specific)

27.   Tuberculosis, primary and secondary

28.   Syphilis, leprosy

29.   Sepsis

30.   Inflammation of serous membranes

31.   Inflammations of mucosas

32.   Intersticial inflammation

33.   Bacterial inflammations

34.   Viral inflammations

35.   Fungal inflammations

36.   Parasitary inflammations

37.   AIDS

38.   Autoimmune diseases

39.   Immunopathologic processes

40.   Transplantation rejection

41.   Healing in general (reparation, regeneration)

42.   Healing of specialised tissues (bone, thrombus, effusion)

43.   Developmental disorders (cardiovascular system, musculo-skeletal system)

44.   Genetically determined disease

45.   Environmental diseases (in general)

46.   Nutritional diseases (in general)

47.   Irradiation diseases

II. Oncologic pathology

 1.     Characteristics of tumors

2.     Microscopic structure of tumors

3.     Classification of tumors

4.     Tumor diagnosis (biopsy, cytology)

5.     Tumor antigens

6.     Benignity and malignity of tumors

7.     Spread of malignant tumors

8.     Cancerogenic factors, precanceroses

9.     Tumor influence on organism (local, systemic)

10.   Benign epithelial tumors

11.   Malignant epithelial tumors

12.   Planocellular (squamous cell) carcinomas

13.   Glandular (adeno)carcinomas

14.   Soft tissue tumors (benign, malignant)

15.   Connective tissue tumors

16.   Tumors of cartilage, bone, joints and tendon sheets

17.   Tumors of muscle cells

18.   Vascular tumors

19.   Hemoblastoses (in general, classification)

20.   Myeloid neoplasms (acute, chronic, myelodysplastic syndrome)

21.   Hodgkin's lymphoma

22.   Non Hodgkin lymphomas (classification)

23.   T-cell lymphomas/leukemias

24.   B-cell lymphomas/leukemias

25.   Tumors of CNS

26.   Tumors of peripheral nerve system

27.   Pigment nevus and malignant melanoma

28.   Lung tumors

29.   Tumors of digestive system

30.   Tumors of oral cavity and esophagus

31.   Tumors of the stomach

32.   Tumors of the small intestine and colon

33.   Fibrocystic changes of breast (benign breast dysplasia)

34.   Breast tumors

35.   Tumors of uterus

36.   Pathological changes of  uterine cervix

37.   Tumors of ovaries

38.   Tumors of prostate and testis

39.   Tumors of kidney and urinary pathes

40.   Tumors of thyroid gland

41.   Tumors of endocrine glands

42.   Tumors of skin and skin adnexa

43.   Tumors of childhood

44.   Choriocarcinoma + placental site trophoblastic tumor

45.   Teratomas, hamartomas

III. Special pathology

1.     Endocarditis infective, non-infective

2.     Myocarditis

3.     Cardiomyopathy

4.     Pericarditis

5.     Rheumatic fever

6.     Congenital diseases of heart, blood vessels)

7.     Atherosclerosis

8.     Vasculitis

9.     Hypertensive disease, complications

10.   Ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction

11.   Left- and right-sided heart failure

12.   Chronic restrictive pulmonary disease

13.   Bronchitis (acute, chronic)

14.   Pneumonia lobar, bronchopmeumonia, intersticial

15.   Bronchial asthma

16.   Emphysema and atelectasis of lungs

17.   Respiratory distress syndrome

18.   Tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, infectious mononucleosis

19.   Cysts of the neck region

20.   Sialoadenitis and salivary gland tumors

21.   Gastroduodenal ulcer disease

22.   Gastritis and esophagitis

23.   Enteritis and colitis

24.   Malabsorption syndrome

25.   Crohn´s disease. Ulcerative colitis

26.   Ileus, Herniations

27.   Megacolon congenitum

28.   Appendicitis

29.   Inflammations of liver. Liver failure

30.   Liver cirrhosis, etiological classiification, complications

31.   Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis

32.   Pancreatitis (acute, chronic)

33.   Peritonitis

34.   Renal failure, acute renal insufficiency

35.   Glomerulonephritis

36.   Tubulointersticial nephritis

37.   Nephrolithiasis

38.   Autoimmune thyreoiditis

39.   Goiter

40.   Pituitary syndromes

41.   Diabetes mellitus (1., 2. type)

42.   Pathology of adrenals

43.   Diffuse neuroendocrine system and its disorders

44.   Inflammations of bone and joints (nonspecific, specific)

45.   Rheumatiod arthritis and gout

46.   Deforming diseases of bones (rickets and osteodystrophy)

47.   Deformities of vertebral column and skull

48.   Skeletal muscle diseases

49.   Prostate inflammation, hyperplasia

50.   Cysts of the ovary

51.   Pathology of pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease

52.   Non neoplastic pathological changes of endometrium  

53.   Newborn and suckling diseases

54.   Causes of perinatal death

55.   Cystic fibrosis

56.   Anemia (hemolytic, pernicious, aplastic)

57.   Intracranial hemorrhage

58.   Hydrocephalus

59.   Ischemic brain injury

60.   Meningitis

61.   Encephalitis, myelitis

62.   Demyelinating diseases

63.   Pathological changes of peripheral nerves (polyneuroplathies)

64.   Blistering dermatitis

65.   Spongiform dermatitis (seborrhea, allergies)

66.   Lichenoid and psoriaform dermatitis

67.   Infectious dermatitis (bacterial, viral, fungal)

68.   Diseases of conjunctiva,  cornea and lacrimal glands

69.   Diseases of retina, retinopathies, glaucoma

70.   Lymphadenopathies (differential diagnosis)


IV. Part of the final examination is microscopic evaluation of one histopathological slide.

Questions for the practical examination from autopsy

1. External inspection
2. Death and postmortal changes
3. Internal inspection - basis of macroscopic description of  dissected tissues and organs
4. Arrangement of diagnoses
5. Ischemic changes of brain - macroscopic description
6. Brain hemmorhage - macroscopic description
7. Meningitis - macroscopic description
8. Hydrocefalus - macroscopic description
9. Pleuritis - macroscopic description
10. Pericarditis - macroscopic description
11. Hydrothorax and hydropericardium pathogenesis
12. Emphysema pulmonum - macroscopic description
13. Oedema pulmonum - macroscopic description
14. Pneumonia - macroscopic description
15. Pneumothorax - macroscopic description
16. Tumors of the lung - macroscopic description
17. Cor pulmonale - macroscopic description
18. Hypertension complications
19. Ischaemic heart disease - macroscopic description
20. Infarction of heart - complications
21. Atherosclerosis - complications
22. Chronic venostasis -changes of liver - macroscopic description
23. Chronic venostasis -changes of lung - macroscopic description
24. Oedema - macroscopic description
25. Cirhosis hepatis - macroscopic description
26. Steatosis hepatis - macroscopic description
27. Cholecystitis chronica - macroscopic description
28. Icterus - macroscopic description
29. Pancreatitis acuta haemmorhagica - macroscopic description
30. Thrombosis - macroscopic description
31. Embolism - macroscopic description
32. Peritonitis - macroscopic description
33. Ileus - macroscopic description
34. Pyelonephritis acuta - macroscopic description
35. Pyelonephritis chronica - macroscopic description
36. Urolithiasis - macroscopic description
37. Tumors of the kidney - macroscopic description
38. Hyperplasia of the prostate - macroscopic description
39. Myoma uteri - macroscopic description
40. Acute myeloic leukemia - macroscopic description
41. Acute lymphatic leukemia - macroscopic description
42. Chronic myeloic leukemia - macroscopic description
43. Chronic lymphatic leukemia - macroscopic description
44. Ulcus ventriculi - macroscopic description
45. Ulcus duodemi - macroscopic description
46. Tumors of the bowel - macroscopic description
47. Tumors of the stomach - macroscopic description
48. Tumors of the pancreas - macroscopic description
49. Metastasis - macroscopic description
50. Portal hypertension - macroscopic description
51. Autopsy of pediatric patients - macroscopic description
52. Macroreactions
53. Dissection of brain and spinal cord
54. Dissection of neck and chest organs
55. Dissection of liver and urogenital complex
56. Signs of maturity