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Summer semester 2023/2024

The course in summer semester  2023/2024 starts on 19th February 2024

1. Credit inquirements in summer semester:

- Attendance at all classes in histopathology.
- Attendance at all autopsy classes.
- To pass 2 written control tests with minimum score of 60 points.

Student, who failed the credit requirements in the summer semester of the previous academic year and has transferred the course to this year, has to attend the whole course in full extent in this academic year.

2. Compensation of classes

You can compensate a missing histopathology class with other groups in the bi-week, when the same topic is being taught, after discussing the compensation with both teachers. 

Autopsy practicals can be compensated throughout the entire semester.

Students can compensate up to 2 autopsy and 2 histopathology classes in a semester.

The compenstion of missing classes is regulated by the Dean's Regulation No. 3/2010 (on the conditions for performance of the compensating tuition and payment of tuition fee at compensatory practical training for foreign students - self payers).


3. Tests during the summer semester (obligatory)

Semester tests will be written in person on paper at the Institute of pathological anatomy at Sasinkova 4 during the Pathological anatomy lecture time period, at 15:30.

The tests consist of 25 multiple choice questions, the questions will include all the topics from lectures and histopathology classes until the said date (including), the time limit is 15mins.

Test 1 26.3.2024

Test 2 7.5.2024 (during the lecture from pathological anatomy)

4. Evaluation of students in the summer semester:

The final evaluation of students in the summer semester will be based on total points earned in the 1st and 2nd test (or compensatory test if the student scored less than 60 points) as follows:

A    182 - 200 points
B    162 - 181 points
C    146 - 161 points
D    132 - 145 points
E    120 - 131 points
Fx  119 and less points

5. Compensatory tests:

Students, who failed the tests during the semester, will have the compensatory terms to write the tests.

Compensatory term A: 22.5.2024 at 14:30

Compensatory term B: 5.6.2024 at 15:00

Compensatory term C: 



Recommended study literature

Harsh Mohan. Textbook of Pathology. Jaypee. 2010.


Do not buy study materials (reduced syllabus) from your older classmates, as they contain incorrect information, save yourself study time and money :)

Time schedule

Histopathology practicals take place on the 2. floor of New theoretical institutes.

Autopsy practicals take place on the ground floor of the New theoretical institutes. Students do not bring anything with them on autopsies.


Lectures are held online through Teams EXCEPT the two lectures when semester tests are written (26.3.; 9.5.)! These two lectures are in person at the Insitute of pathological anatomy.

Program of seminars for the summer semester 2023/2024

1-2. Introduction. Autopsy. Basic histological techniques. Methods in pathology (Histological staining, histochemistry, physical methods, microscopy).

Responsible: MUDr. P. Janega, PhD,

Study material: pdf.


3-4. Cell injury. Circulation disorders.

Metaplasia – lungs (Z.II.9), Steatosis - liver (Z.II.4), Lipomatosis - pancreas (Z.II.5), Encephalomalacia (Z.III.3), Anemic infarction - kidney (Z.III.1), Hemorrhagic infarction - lungs (Z.III.2), Focal necrosis - IM (L.II.2), Pulmonary edema (L.II.5), Brown induration - lungs (L.II.4), Chronic venostasis - liver (L.II.6), Embolus - pulmonary artery (L.II.7)

Responsible: MUDr. K. Letkovská

Study material: pdf.

5-6. Inflammation. Healing.

Catarrhal inflammation - lungs (Z.IV.1), Fibrinous pericarditis (Z.IV.3), Pseudomembranous inflammation – intestine (Z.IV.6), Appendicitis (Z.IV.5), Brain abscess (Z.IV.4), Influenza – lungs (Z.IV.2), Oxyuriasis (Z.IV.10), Tuberculosis - lungs (Z.IV.8), Thrombus - healing (Z.III.7), Foreign body granuloma (Z.III.8)

Responsible: MUDr. K. Letkovská

Study material: pdf.

7-8. Benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Hemopoetic tumors.

Epidermoid carcinoma (Z.V.5), Basal cell carcinoma (Z.V.3), Adenomatous polyp (Z.V.2), Fibroma (Z.VI.6), Fibrosarcoma (Z.VI.7), Leiomyoma (Z.VI.1), Capillary hemangioma (Z.VI.4), Cavernous hemangioma (Z.VI.3), Osteoma (Z.VI.10), Osteosarcoma (Z.VI.11), Hodgkin´s lymphoma (Z.VII.3), Chronic lymphocytic leukemia /CLL/ (Z.VII.2)

Responsible: MUDr. M. Palkovič

Study material: pdf.



9-10. Pathology of gastrointestinal system

Gastric ulcer (64), Chronic atrophic gastritis (216), Ulcerative colitis  (L.III.4), Adenocarcinoma of colon (47), Chronic hepatitis (136), Liver cirrhosis (L.III.7), Chronic cholecystitis (99), Acute hemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis (L.III.8)

Responsible: MUDr. P.Gregor, MUDr. K. Letkovská

Study material: pdf.


11-12. Pathology of cardiovascular and respiratory system

Endocarditis (L.II.8), Cardiomyopathy (255), Atherosclerosis (L.II.1), Pulmonary emphysema (141), Lobar pneumonia (L.II.10), Bronchopneumonia (L.II.9), Small cell lung carcinoma (L.II.11)

Responsible: MUDr. D. Kobzová, MUDr. K. Letkovská

Study material: pdf.

Program of autopsy exercises for the winter and summer semester

Summer semester

1.-2. Death and postmortal changes. Basics of macroscopic  description of dissected tissues and organs.

3.-4. General external and internal inspection of the body. Pathological report and arrangement of diagnoses.

5.-6. Dissection of brain and spinal cord. Macroreactions.

7.-8. Dissection of neck and chest organs.

9.-10. Dissection of liver and urogenital complex.

11.-12. Autopsy of fetuses and children. Dissection of bones.

Winter semester:

1.-2. Macroscopic findings of brain and spinal cord diseases.

3.-4. Macroscopic findings of neck and chest organ diseases.

5.-6. Macroscopic findings of liver complex diseases.

7.-8. Macroscopic findings of urogenital system diseases.

9.-10. Credit week. Practical examination from autopsy (first part of final exam).

The exact questions for final examination


I. General pathology

1. Methods in pathology
2. Causes and origin of disease
3. Death and postmortal changes
4. Cell damage and cellular adaptations
5. Morphology of reversible cell damage
6. Morphology of irreversible cell damage (cell death)
7. Amyloidosis
8. Endogenous pigments, icterus
9. Exogenous pigments and pneumoconiosis
10. Circulatory disorders (overview)
11. Shock and shock changes
12. Hyperaemia and congestion
13. Local anaemia (ischaemia, infarction)
14. Thrombosis and embolism
15. Hemorrhage
16. Edema
17. Regeneration and reparation
18. Wound healing and bone fracture, pathological organization
19. Inflammation (in general)
20. Acute inflammation
21. Chronic inflammation
22. Granulomatous inflammation
23. Primary and secondary tbc
24. Sarcoidosis and leprosy
25. Syphilis
26. Bacterial inflammations
27. Fungal inflammations
28. Viral inflammations
29. Parasitary inflammations
30. Immune disorders (allergies, immunopathological reactions)
31. Autoimmune diseases
32.Transplant rejection
33. AIDS
34. Diseases from radiation exposure

II. General and special oncopathology


1. Characteristics of tumours
2. Microscopic structure of a tumour
3. Classification of tumours
4. Benignity and malignancy of tumours
5. Tumour spread
6. Precanceroses
7. Carcinogenesis and carcinogenic factors
8. Effect of tumour on the organism ( local, general)
9. Benign and malignant epithelial tumours
10. Squamous cell carcinomas
11. Glandular carcinomas
12. Benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours
13. Vascular tumours
14. Haemoblastoses (overview)
15. Malignant lymphomas (overview)
16. Hodgkin's lymphoma
17. Tumours of the peripheral nervous system (overview)
18. Tumours of the central nervous system
19. Pigment nevi and malignant melanoma
20. Tumours of the lung
21. Tumours of the gastrointestinal tract
22. Tumours of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas
23. Breast tumours
24. Benign dysplasia of the breast ( fibrocystic changes )
25. Tumours of the kidney and urinary tract
26. Tumours and cysts of the ovary
27. Tumours of the uterus
28. Tumours of the prostate and testis
29. Tumors of the endocrine glands
30. Neuroendocrine tumours
31. Teratomas, hamartomas
32. Tumours of the skin and cutaneous adnexa (overview)
33. Tumours of childhood

Oncopathology of the orofacial region

35. Oral cavity precanceroses
36. Pseudotumours of oral cavity
37. Odontogenic cysts of the orofacial region
38. Non-ontogenic cysts of the orofacial region
39. Odontogenic tumours ( ameloblastoma, dentinoma, odontoma, cementoma)
40. Salivary gland tumours ( benign, malignant )
41. Tumours of the oral cavity (overview)
42. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lips

III. Special pathology

1. Endocarditis
2. Myocarditis
3. Congenital heart defects
4. Atherosclerosis
5. Ischaemic heart disease
6. Vasculitis
8. Bronchitis
9. Lung airway disorders ( emphysema, atelectasis )
10. Lobar pneumonia
11. Bronchopneumonia
12. Interstitial pneumonia
13. Asthma bronchiale
14. Tonsillitis
15. Gastritis and enteritis
16. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease
17. Appendicitis, ileus and peritonitis
18. Inflammation and necrosis of the liver
19. Cirrhosis of the liver
20. Inflammations and concrements of the gallbladder
21. Haemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreas
22. Glomerulonephritis
23. Tubulointerstitial nephritis
24. Diseases of the thyroid gland
25. Pituitary syndromes
26. Diseases of the adrenal gland
27. Diabetes mellitus
28. Bone inflammation and osteodystrophy
29. Arthritis and arthropathies
30. Lymphadenopathies ( dif. dg.)
31. Meningitis and encephalitis
32. Skin inflammations (overview)
33. Blister dermatitis
34. Psoriatiform and lichenoid dermatitis
35. Bacterial and fungal dermatitis
36. Sepsis

 Pathology of the orofacial region

37. Stomatitis
38. Diseases of the gingiva
39. Epulis
40. Oral lesions in systemic diseases
41. Periodontitis, Parodontosis, Dental plaque-associated diseases
42. Dental caries
43. Inflammation of the dental pulp
44. Diseases of the temporo-mandibular joint
45. Disorders of salivary gland secretion and sialoadenosis
46. Acute and chronic inflammations of the salivary glands
47. Sjogren's syndrome
48. Sialolithiasis, mucocele
49. Actinomycosis

Note: According to the current course information sheet, the final examination includes a microscopic evaluation of one histopathological specimen.

Questions for practical exam from autopsy

Questions for practical exam from autopsy

1. External inspection
2. Death and postmortal changes
3. Internal inspection - basis of macroscopic description of dissected tissues and organs
4. Arrangement of diagnoses
5. Ischemic changes of brain - macroscopic description
6. Brain hemmorhage - macroscopic description
7. Meningitis - macroscopic description
8. Fluidothorax - pathogenesis
9. Emphysema pulmonum - macroscopic description
10. Oedema pulmonum - macroscopic description
11. Pneumonia - macroscopic description
12. Tumors of the lung - macroscopic description
13. Cor pulmonale - macroscopic description
14. Infarction of heart - complications
15. Atherosclerosis - complications
16. Chronic venostasis -changes of liver - macroscopic description
17. Cirhosis hepatis - macroscopic description
18. Steatosis hepatis - macroscopic description
19. Icterus - macroscopic description
20. Embolism - macroscopic description
21. Peritonitis - macroscopic description
22. Inflammation and tumors of the kidney - macroscopic description
23. Hyperplasia of the prostate - macroscopic description
24. Myoma uteri - macroscopic description
25. Ulcus ventriculi - macroscopic description
26. Tumors of the bowel - macroscopic description
27. Portal hypertension - macroscopic description
28. Signs of maturity