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I. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Conditions for passing „The surgery 4“ test

This test contains a total 20 questions from orthopedics, traumatology, plastic surgery, burn surgery and pediatric surgery.

Of the four answers, only one is correct:

Test evaluation:            20-19 correct answers -  A

18-17 correct answers – B

16-15 correct answers – C

14-13 correct answers – D

12-11 correct answers -  E

10 and less – FX

The test is performed online with the MOODLE program. The test duration is exactly 15 minutes.

Test dates:

Ordinary date - The test in Slovak language     

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  15.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             15.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                15.00 hod.

Ordinary date - The test in English language    

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             11.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                11.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   -  The test in Slovak language     

22.6.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            10.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   - The test in English language    

22.6.2021 Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            11.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  -  The test in Slovak language     

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  - The test in English language    

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 11.00 hod.

Surgery – lectures, 5. th year, General Medicine, summer semester 2020/2021

Surgery – lectures, 5. th year, General Medicine, summer semester  2020/2021 

Study  program: General Medecine 5th class Academic year 2020/2021 Summer Semester

Distance form


Lectures of Orthopaedics – Traumatology – 18 hours

Plastic and Burns – 8 hours

Pediatric surgery – 2 hours

Tuesday                                   16.2.                         14,30 – 16,20    


1.       Introduction to Orthopedics: Basics of Musculoskeletal Science – Embryonic Development of Musculoskeletal Tissues, Bone Growth and Remodelling, Joint and Articular Cartilage, Development of the Spine, Clinical Examination of the Orthopedic Patient (walking, goniometry, active and passive movement)

                                                                                                                            MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.

Wednesday                          17.2.                        14.30 – 16.20


2.     Paediatric Orthopaedics I. – Clinical Examination of the Child, Congenital Abnormalities of the Lower and Upper Limb (DDH, pes  planus, talus verticalis, elongation of bones).

Prof. MUDr. Milan Kokavec, PhD.

Tuesday                                   23.2.                        14,30 -16,20      


3.       Paediatric Orthopaedics II. – Generalized Conginetal Abnormalities (osteogenesis imperfecta, arachnodactyly), Metabolic Disturbances (rickets, scurvy), Neuromuscular Disorders

                                                                                                          Prof. MUDr. Milan Kokavec, PhD.

Wednesday                           11.3.                         14,30 – 16,20


4.       Paediatric Orthopaedics III.  – Disorders of Epiphyses and Epiphyseal Growth (Legg-Perthes´Disease, Scheuermann´sDisease, osteochondroses).  Specific Fracture and Joint injuries in Children. (subperiosteal, Salter-Harris classification).

                                                                                                          Prof. MUDr. Milan Kokavec, PhD.

Tuesday                          2.3.                     14.30 – 16.20


5.      Spine injuries and Surgical Treatment of the Degenerative Disorders – Congenital Abnormalities of the Spine (spina bifida, rachischisis), Degenerative Joint Disease in the Spine (intervertebral disc  joints, segmental instability, spinal stenosis), Specific  Fractures of the Spine in Adults (classification, surgical and functional treatment, bracing, skeletal fixation).

                                                                       MUDr. Peter Tisovský,PhD.,/MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.


Tuesday                          9.3.                     14,30 – 16,20 


6.       Neoplasms of Musculoskeletal  Tissues and Inflammatory Disorders of  Bones and Joint - Classifications (WHO, GTM), Incidence, Diagnosis (clinical Feactures,  diagnostic imaging,  laboratory  investigation, bone biopsie), Principles and Methods of Treatment, Tumors  of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors, Metastatic (secondary) Neoplasms in Bone. Inflammatory Disorders of Bones and Joints (acute and chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis, acute septic arthritis).

MUDr. Andrey Švec, PhD., MPH



Tuesday                          16.3.                   14,30 - 16,20


7.       Traumatologie of Bones and Joints, Traumatologie of Soft Tissues  – Patient´s History, Physical Examination, Diagnostic, Imaging, Healing of Fracture in Cortical Bone, in Cancellous Bone and in Articular Cartilage, Assessement of Fracture Healing, General  Principles of Fr. Treatment, Methods of Fr. Treatment, Special Types of  Fractures in Adults (osteoprotics, fatigue fractures), Muscle and Tendon Injuries.

                                                                                                   Doc. MUDr. Boris Šteňo, PhD.

Tuesday                          23.3.                   14,30 - 16,20



8.       Artroses -  emergence, clinical and X-rays. Arthrosis, division: primary and secondary, mosaicoplasty and chondrocyte cultivation; Conservative: NSAID, SYSADOA, physical and rehabilitative therapy, visco-adherence, ... and surgical treatment: endoprotection mainly cox and knee, types and materials for the production of endoprostheses

                                                                                                                            Doc. MUDr. Boris Šteňo, PhD.


Tuesday                          30.3.                   14,30 - 16,20


9.       a/ Degenerative Disorders of Joints and Related Tissues – Normal  Aging of Articular Cartilage, Degenerative  Joint  Disease (osteoarthritis): primary and secondary, Clinical Features and Diagnosis, Prognosis, Treatment (aims of  treatment, methods of treatment).                 

b/ Developmental  Diseases of the Skeleton – Dysplasias  dne  to disturbances in chondroid and osteoid production, Miscellaneous Dysplasias.

c/ Metabolic and Hormonal Diseases in Adults – osteomalacia, rickets, osteoporosis, vitamin D metabolism, acromegaly, hormonaltherapy.

Doc. MUDr. Boris Šteňo, PhD.


Tuesday                          6.4.                     14.30-16.20


Burns                                                                                       prof. MUDr. Ján Koller, CSc.


Tuesday                          13.4.                   14.30-16.20


Plastic                                                                                      MUDr. Drahomir Palenčár, PhD.



Tuesday                                  20.4.                         14.30-16.20


Plastic                                                                                      MUDr. Drahomir Palenčár, PhD.



Tuesday                                  27.4.                                           14.30-16.20


Plastic                                                                                      MUDr. Drahomir Palenčár, PhD.

Tuesday                                  4.5.                            14.30-16.20

Pediatric surgery                                                                                     MUDr. Jozef Babala, PhD.





Orthopaedic lectures

1. Introduction to orthopaedics - development of connective tissue and skeletal ossification, types of bone and cartilage, articular cartilage. Spine development from somites. Clinical examination of orthopaedic patient: joints, walking, goniomentry of large joints, Q angle of the patella, ...

Lecturer: MUDr. Ján Paukovic, CSc.

2. Scoliosis: formation, prevention, conservative and surgical treatment. Chest deformities (pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum).

Lecturer: MUDr. Juraj Horváth, PhD., MUDr. Peter Tisovský,PhD.

3. Surgical treatment of degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of spine classification of spinal injuries, conservative therapy: reclination, corsets.

Operating therapy: types of stabilization according to location, neurological symptomatology, principles of surgical treatment.

Lecturer: MUDr. Peter Tisovský, PhD. / MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.

4. Oncoorthopaedics and inflammatory diseases in orthopaedics

a/ primary tumors of the skeleton, hard and soft tissue and their treatment: WHO classification of tumors, Enneking classification GTM, principles of oncological treatment, individual endoprosthesis, ...

b / secondary skeletal tumors and their treatment: the most common bone metastases, impending fractures: Mirels classification, ... and pathological fractures. Principles of surgical treatment of metastatic fractures.

Tumor-like affections: Fibrous cortical defect of metaphysis, ...

Origins and types of infection spreading. Specific infections: tbc, Charcot joint, ... non-specific and rare inflammation: ostitis sclerosans Garré, Brodie abscess and osteomyelitis albuminosa. Complications of chronic suppuration: the role of the growth plates in spreading of inflammation, amyloidosis, ... treatment.

Periprosthetic infection

Lecturer: MUDr. Andrey Švec, PhD.


Orthopaedic and orthopaedic traumatology lectures are carried out in cooperation I.OTK, II. OTK and Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic.

Sylabus of practical training in subject of orthopaedics

IV. year general medicine:

Day 1: medical documentation of orthopaedic patient, basic information about orthopedics, diagnostic methods /clinical examination, imaging: X-ray, Scintigraphy, CT, MRI/ - presentation of patients on orthopaedic department, their documentation, assisting during basic therapeutic procedures on ward / venepuncture, joint puncture, surgical wound care and dressing, taking of biological material and samples/

Day 2: bandages and first-aid equipment, plastering and plaster casts, basic instrumentation and materials /endoprosthesis, materials used in traumatology/

V. year general medicine:

Day 1: Definition and scope of orthopaedics. Recapitulation of the development and regeneration of connective tissues / mostly bone and cartilage, joint structure /. Examination of orthopaedic patient / clinical examination, range of motion in the joints, physiological position in the joints, arthrodesis and arthroplasty /. Assistant examination methods and imaging in orthopaedics /plain radiographs., Scintigraphy, CT, MR/. Demonstration of the patients of the clinic.

Day 2: Joint diseases / arthrosis, inflammation - clinical findings and imaging diagnostic methods /. Pediatric orthopaedics / deformities and dilocations: scoliosis, clubfoot, torticollis myogenes, d.d.h. and congenital dislocation of hip joints/, aseptic bone necrosis, deformations and teratology of skeleton. Oncology / basic theoretical knowledge, primary and secondary tumors of connective tissue, the treatment of oncologic patients: primary tumors and metastasis/.

Day 3: Systemic diseases of the skeleton /congenital: chondral production disorders, osteoproductive disorders, mixed forms, obtained: hormonal, metabolic, osteoporosis and osteomalation /. Skeletal trauma and connective tissue trauma / distorsions and fractures - diagnosis, classification, treatment of trauma is adults and children /

VI.year general medicine:

Day 1: Traumatology / distorsions, opened and closed fractures and their classification, pathologic fractures, pseudoarthrosis and classification of pseudoarthrosis, dislocations, amputations, orthopaedic prosthetics / - focused on questions of state examinations and also on distribution to various parts of the skeleton / spine, joints, shaft of long bones /. Clinical examination and imaging diagnostic methods. Differential diagnosis of traumatism / specific and non-specific inflammation, tumors and pseudotumours/. Adaptation and stable osteosynthesis, most modern therapeutic principles and methods.

Day 2: Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeleton / mainly arthrosis, formation of arthrosis, diagnosis and treatment /. Metabolic bone diseases /rickets, scurvy, osteporosis and osteomalation/. Nonspecific bacterial inflammation / nosocomial infections / and their diagnosis and treatment /mainly osteomyelitis /. Specific inflammations /tuberculosis, syphilis/. Muscular and neuromuscular diseases, canal syndromes, algoneurodystrophy. Pediatric orthopedics / deformities and dislocations /.

Day 3: Oncology / Bone and soft tissue primary and secondary tumors, their diagnosis and treatment /. Repetition of state exam questions and other student questions from orthopaedics.

Recommended literature

1. Salter, R.B.: Textbook of Disorders and Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System, Williams&Wilkins, 687 s. 

2. Steinberg, G.G.:  Ramamurti´s Orthopaedics in Primary Care Wiliams&Wilkins, 390s.

3. Rockwood and Green´f Fractures in Adults, Lippincott Wiliams&Wilkins, 1275s. , volume 1,2,3.

Obligatory textbook of „ORTHOPEADICS

MERCER´s  TEXTBOOK of ORTHAPAEDICS and TRAUMA, Tenth Edition, Ed. Sivananthan, S. and coll, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2012, 1620 p.

Recommended Textbooks of „Orthopaedics“

1.    BASIC ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCES, Second Edition, Edited by Ramachandran, M., CEC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2017, 524 p.

2.    ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA The Stanmore and Royal London, Guide, Edited by Dawson-Bowling, S. and coll., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2014,438 p.