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I. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Exam questions - Surgical propedeutics 3

I. Block of questions

Antisepsis and asepsis, disinfection, sterilization

Preoperative patients preparing

The essence of anesthesia - concept - division - premedication

Local anesthesia: infiltrative,  regional

Circulatory resuscitation

Respiratory resuscitation


Blood transfusion - technique + indication

Complications of blood transfusions

Hypovolemic shock

Septic shock

Blood derivatives and replacement solutions

Tracheotomy and conicotomy, indication, procedure

Preoperative preparing of a diabetic patient

Preoperative preparing  for colon surgery

Intensive postoperative patient care

Nutrition of the operated patient

Postoperative infusion therapy

Total parenteral nutrition

Disorders of water and electrolyte management

Acid-base balance disorders

Disorders of the digestive system

Pressure ulcers - prevention and treatment

Postoperative complications in the area of the surgical wound

Healing of surgical wounds

Postoperative parotitis

Postoperative complications of the respiratory system

Postoperative urological complications

Postoperative complications of the cardiovascular system

Phlebothrombosis and thrombophlebitis

Postoperative thromboembolic complications

Air and fat embolism

Surgical procedure, indications

Distribution and characteristics of wounds

Wound treatments

Prevention of tetanus


Diagnostic methods in urology

Diagnostic methods in vascular surgery

Gunshot wound

Chest puncture

Puncture of the peritoneal cavity

Bladder and Douglas space puncture

Joint puncture

Lumbar puncture

Antibiotics in surgery

Operations for sudden (acute) abdominal events

The most common congenital abdominal defects in childhood

Childhood injuries - differences, in general

Transplantation - general principles and prerequisites

Postoperative patient care

Air and fat embolism

Examination of a surgical patient - surgical medical record

Preparing the patient for surgery - in general

Postoperative GIT complications

II. Block of questions

Burns – first  aid and treatment

Burns - distribution and clinical course


Muscle and tendon injuries

Nerve injuries

Vascular injuries

Joint injuries

Distribution of fractures

Dislocated fractures

Conservative treatment of fractures

Surgical treatment of fractures

Head and face injury

Chest injury

Abdominal injury

Brain injuries

Fractures of the base of the skull

Bleeding in the brain

Management of the patient with multiple injuries

Injuries of urinary organs

Crush and blast syndrome

Rehabilitation after injuries

Symptoms of inflammatory surgical diseases

Lymphangitis and lymphadenitis

Abscess, phlegmona

Furunculus and carbunculus, folliculitis

Erysipelas and erysipeloid


Purulent disease of fingers and hand



Panaritium pulposum

Panaritium oseale

Surface panaritions

Tendosynovitis and tendovaginitis (peritendinitis) and Bursitis

Anaerobic wound infections



Benign tumors and their treatment

Principles of treatment of malignant tumors

Amputations and their indications

Bladder catheterization

Electric shock

Chemical injuries

Skin plastic surgery

Transplantation - general principles and prerequisites

Nosocomial infections



Principles of organizing surgical aid in mass accidents and disasters

Specific infections, AIDS - protection and prevention in surgical diseases


Chemical mixtures

Exam in Surgery 5th Grade – QUESTIONS

Exam in Surgery 5th Grade – QUESTIONS

The exam will take place in person, oral form in surgical clinics

1. Acute appendicitis

2. Intracranial bleeding, Hematoma subdural, epidural

3. Pancreatic injuries

4. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of pancreatic tumors

5. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)

6. Luxations on the upper limb (humeroscapular, elbow, wrist and carpal bones, interphalangeal joints)

7. Tracheostomy, conicotomy (indication, procedure)

8. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba

9. Spleen injuries

10. Portal hypertension

11. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)

12. Blunt chest injuries

13. Hernia incarcerata

14. Bladder carcinoma

15. Hemoperitoneum

16. Cholelithiasis

17. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors

18. Arthroscopy of the knee, shoulder, ankle, hip joint (indications, principles)

19. Ileus mechanical, strangulation, volvulus, intussusception

20. Open fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

21. Achalasia and its treatment

22. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)

23. Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

24. Pancreatitis acute (characteristics, diagnosis, therapy)

25. Dupuytren's contracture (differential diagnosis), camptodactyly, post-traumatic contractures on the hand

26. Volkmann's ischemic contracture

27. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the small intestine

28. Burn disease, burns – division

29. Subdural hematoma

30. Foreign bodies in GIT

31. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

32. Fractures of the skull and base of the skull

33. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of rectal cancer

34. Brain abscess

35. Characterize high-energy and low-energy trauma, the mechanism of occurrence, the effect of energy on the type of injury, the specifics of anamnesis, diagnostics, traffic accidents, clarify a comprehensive approach to the patient

36. Pressure ulcers (pathophysiology, distribution, prevention and treatment)

37. Neurogenic urinary disorders

38. Commotio et contusio cerebri

39. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the gallbladder and bile ducts

40. Urolithiasis

41. Epidural hematoma

42. Breast tumors (in general, diagnosis, classification), comprehensive treatment of breast tumors

43. Frostbite

44. Kidney injuries

45. Ileitis terminalis – M. Crohn (complications, surgical treatment)

46. Bleeding from the upper GIT

47. Discectomy, decompression, stabilization and fusion on the spine (characteristics, indications)

48. The essence of anesthesia, local, lead, regional anesthesia

49. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

50. Injuries of the liver and bile ducts

51. Furunculus, carbunculus, cheillitis, phlegmon, abscess, lymphadenitis, erysipelas, erysipeloid

52. Vertebral fractures (basic division, compression, community)

53. Blunt abdominal injuries 

54. Pelveoperitonitis

55. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the mediastinum

56. Fractures of the thoracic spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

57. Blood transfusion (indications, execution, blood derivatives, complications)

58. Stereotaxis

59. Spinal cord injuries

60. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of stomach tumors

61. Kidney and urinary tract infections, urosepsis

62. Perinatal trauma and its importance for child development

63. Shock (general, septic, hypovolemic, burn)

64. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors

65. Polydactyly, syndactyly, peromelia, phocomelia

66. Postoperative infusion therapy

67. Omphalocele, gastroschisis

68. Fractures of the diaphysis of the lower leg and ankle area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

69. Thrombosis and embolism of mesenteric vessels

70. Atresia of the duodenum, small and large intestine

71. Congenital hip dysplasia (characteristics, diagnosis, screening, treatment)

72. Panaricia (superficial and deep), phlegmons of the palm

73. Phimosis, paraphimosis, balantitis

74. Total, subtotal amputations, replantation and revascularization, patient and amputee transport to the replantation center, ischemia time

75. Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

76. Testis anomalies, hypospadias and epispadias

77. Epicondylitis humeri radialis, ulnaris, tendovaginitis stenotisans flexor digitorum manus

78. Esophageal diverticula and their surgical treatment

79. Cardiac tamponade

80. Soft tissue tumors of the musculoskeletal system (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment) 

81. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of colon cancer

82. Complications of burns, their diagnosis and treatment

83. Pathological changes on the chest (pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, pectus infundibulare)

84. Postoperative complications of the surgical wound

85. Congenital defects of the biliary tract

86. Primary malignant and benign bone tumors (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment)

87. Pylethrombosis

88. Transplantation (general principles, donation, distribution), tissue transplants, organ transplants

89. Fractures of the talus, calcaneus, tarsus, metatarsals and phalanges of the foot (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

90. Prolapsus ani et recti

91. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the spinal cord and spinal cord covers

92. Fractures (diagnosis and classification), principles of treatment (conservative and operative), osteosynthetic material, minimally invasive surgical techniques

93. Pancreatitis chronica (characteristics, surgical treatment)

94. Wound healing, pathological scar, chronic wounds (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, therapy)

95. Osteomalacia and Paget's disease (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

96. Anaerobic infections in surgery

97. Teratomas

98. Fractures in the diaphysis of the humerus and elbow (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

99. Hernia diaphragmatica, reflux esophagitis

100. Anorectal malformations

101. Secondary bone tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

102. Postoperative complications (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, treatment)

103. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)

104. Osteotomy, arthrodesis, synovectomy (characteristics, indications)

105. Colitis ulcerosa (characteristics, surgical treatment)

106. Urolithiasis

107. Peculiarities of fractures and dislocations in childhood

108. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST (epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment)

109. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)

110. Fractures of the cervical spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

111. Obstructive jaundice (differential diagnosis)

112. Tendon injuries, principle of tenosuture, tendon transplantation and transposition

113. Bursitis, tendinitis, tendovaginitis, enthesopathy, peripheral nerve narrowing syndrome

114. Nodi haemorrhoidales

115. Bladder carcinoma

116. Fractures in the area of the diaphysis of the bones of the forearm, the area of the wrist, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges of the hand (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

117. Struma nodosa (surgical treatment, complications, thyroid tumors)

118. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)

119. Infectious and parainfectious non-specific arthritis, borreliosis, viral arthritis (HIV)

120. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the parathyroid glands

121. Reconstructive and radiological procedures on the arterial system

122. Deformities of the spine - scoliosis, kyphosis, spondylolisthesis (characteristics, diagnosis and treatment)

123. Hydrocephalus

124. Pedes plani et planovalgi (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

125. Abdomen acutum (distribution, characteristics)

126. Congenital defects of the hand

127. Acute and chronic osteomyelitis (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

128. Perforation of the esophagus

129. Tumors of the testis

130. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

131. Abscessus cavi Douglasi

132. Congenital leg defects (pes equinovarus, pes excavatus, ...) (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

133. Acute cholecystitis 

134. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)

135. Spinal pain of non-inflammatory etiology (characteristics, specifics according to individual locations, diagnosis, treatment)

136. Internal hernia in the abdominal cavity

137. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

138. Arthrosis (characteristics, most common locations, diagnosis and treatment, endoprostheses, types of their anchoring)

139. General principles of diagnostics and treatment of tumors

140. Hirschsprung's disease

141. Fractures of the scapula, clavicle and proximal part of the humerus (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

142. Biliary peritonitis

143. Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)

144. Root syndromes (cervical, lumbosacral, cauda equina syndrome) diagnosis and treatment

145. Hernia (distribution and characteristics), hernia umbilicalis, hernia paraumbilicalis, hernia in cicatrice, hernia linea alba

146. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)

147. Intracranial hemorrhage

148. Malignant breast tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

149. Luxations on the lower limb (hip joint, knee, ankle, Choparts joint)

150. Peritonitis (distribution, characteristics)

151. Intestinal rotation disorders – Ladd's syndrome

152. Fractures of the proximal femur (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

153. Hernia inguinalis et femoralis

154. Meconium ileus, meconium peritonitis

155. Acute and chronic knee damage (clinical and imaging examination, diagnosis and treatment)

156. Paralytic ileus

157. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors

158. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

159. Ulcus duodeni, ulcus ventriculi

160. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)

161. Compartment syndrome (extremity and abdomen)

162. Differential diagnosis of bleeding into the GIT

163. Esophageal atresia

164. Aseptic bone necrosis (characteristics, diagnosis, most common locations, treatment)

165. Diverticulosis of the colon

166. Ductus omphaloentericus persistens, urachus persistens

167. Complications of fracture healing, prolonged healing, pseudarthrosis, fractura male sanata (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

168. Ileus (distribution, characteristics)

169. Tumors of the testis

170. Examination and management of a patient with polytrauma (principles of treatment, Damage Control, advanced post-traumatic resuscitation (ATLS - Advanced Trauma Life Support)

171. Cystae et pseudocystae pancreatis

172. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of lung tumors

173. Fractures of ribs and sternum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

174. Pylorostenosis et pylorospasmus

175. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors

176. Inflammatory diseases of the spine autoimmune e.g. Morbus Bechterev, bacterial, specific (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

177. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors

178. Fractures of the femoral shaft and knee area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

179. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal tumors

180. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba

181. Tendon injuries on the limbs, diagnosis, classification and treatment (sutures and types of rehabilitation)

Surgery State exam questions GM

Surgery State exam questions GM

State final exam in surgery

State final exam in surgery

Conditions for passing „The surgery 4“ test

This test contains a total 20 questions from orthopedics, traumatology, plastic surgery, burn surgery and pediatric surgery.

Of the four answers, only one is correct:

Test evaluation:            20-19 correct answers -  A

18-17 correct answers – B

16-15 correct answers – C

14-13 correct answers – D

12-11 correct answers -  E

10 and less – FX

The test is performed online with the MOODLE program. The test duration is exactly 15 minutes.

Test dates:

Ordinary date - The test in Slovak language     

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  15.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             15.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                15.00 hod.

Ordinary date - The test in English language    

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             11.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                11.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   -  The test in Slovak language     

22.6.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            10.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   - The test in English language    

22.6.2021 Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            11.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  -  The test in Slovak language     

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  - The test in English language    

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 11.00 hod.

Orthopaedic lectures

1. Introduction to orthopaedics - development of connective tissue and skeletal ossification, types of bone and cartilage, articular cartilage. Spine development from somites. Clinical examination of orthopaedic patient: joints, walking, goniomentry of large joints, Q angle of the patella, ...

Lecturer: MUDr. Ján Paukovic, CSc.

2. Scoliosis: formation, prevention, conservative and surgical treatment. Chest deformities (pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum).

Lecturer: MUDr. Juraj Horváth, PhD., MUDr. Peter Tisovský,PhD.

3. Surgical treatment of degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of spine classification of spinal injuries, conservative therapy: reclination, corsets.

Operating therapy: types of stabilization according to location, neurological symptomatology, principles of surgical treatment.

Lecturer: MUDr. Peter Tisovský, PhD. / MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.

4. Oncoorthopaedics and inflammatory diseases in orthopaedics

a/ primary tumors of the skeleton, hard and soft tissue and their treatment: WHO classification of tumors, Enneking classification GTM, principles of oncological treatment, individual endoprosthesis, ...

b / secondary skeletal tumors and their treatment: the most common bone metastases, impending fractures: Mirels classification, ... and pathological fractures. Principles of surgical treatment of metastatic fractures.

Tumor-like affections: Fibrous cortical defect of metaphysis, ...

Origins and types of infection spreading. Specific infections: tbc, Charcot joint, ... non-specific and rare inflammation: ostitis sclerosans Garré, Brodie abscess and osteomyelitis albuminosa. Complications of chronic suppuration: the role of the growth plates in spreading of inflammation, amyloidosis, ... treatment.

Periprosthetic infection

Lecturer: MUDr. Andrey Švec, PhD.


Orthopaedic and orthopaedic traumatology lectures are carried out in cooperation I.OTK, II. OTK and Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic.

Sylabus of practical training in subject of orthopaedics

IV. year general medicine:

Day 1: medical documentation of orthopaedic patient, basic information about orthopedics, diagnostic methods /clinical examination, imaging: X-ray, Scintigraphy, CT, MRI/ - presentation of patients on orthopaedic department, their documentation, assisting during basic therapeutic procedures on ward / venepuncture, joint puncture, surgical wound care and dressing, taking of biological material and samples/

Day 2: bandages and first-aid equipment, plastering and plaster casts, basic instrumentation and materials /endoprosthesis, materials used in traumatology/

V. year general medicine:

Day 1: Definition and scope of orthopaedics. Recapitulation of the development and regeneration of connective tissues / mostly bone and cartilage, joint structure /. Examination of orthopaedic patient / clinical examination, range of motion in the joints, physiological position in the joints, arthrodesis and arthroplasty /. Assistant examination methods and imaging in orthopaedics /plain radiographs., Scintigraphy, CT, MR/. Demonstration of the patients of the clinic.

Day 2: Joint diseases / arthrosis, inflammation - clinical findings and imaging diagnostic methods /. Pediatric orthopaedics / deformities and dilocations: scoliosis, clubfoot, torticollis myogenes, d.d.h. and congenital dislocation of hip joints/, aseptic bone necrosis, deformations and teratology of skeleton. Oncology / basic theoretical knowledge, primary and secondary tumors of connective tissue, the treatment of oncologic patients: primary tumors and metastasis/.

Day 3: Systemic diseases of the skeleton /congenital: chondral production disorders, osteoproductive disorders, mixed forms, obtained: hormonal, metabolic, osteoporosis and osteomalation /. Skeletal trauma and connective tissue trauma / distorsions and fractures - diagnosis, classification, treatment of trauma is adults and children /

VI.year general medicine:

Day 1: Traumatology / distorsions, opened and closed fractures and their classification, pathologic fractures, pseudoarthrosis and classification of pseudoarthrosis, dislocations, amputations, orthopaedic prosthetics / - focused on questions of state examinations and also on distribution to various parts of the skeleton / spine, joints, shaft of long bones /. Clinical examination and imaging diagnostic methods. Differential diagnosis of traumatism / specific and non-specific inflammation, tumors and pseudotumours/. Adaptation and stable osteosynthesis, most modern therapeutic principles and methods.

Day 2: Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeleton / mainly arthrosis, formation of arthrosis, diagnosis and treatment /. Metabolic bone diseases /rickets, scurvy, osteporosis and osteomalation/. Nonspecific bacterial inflammation / nosocomial infections / and their diagnosis and treatment /mainly osteomyelitis /. Specific inflammations /tuberculosis, syphilis/. Muscular and neuromuscular diseases, canal syndromes, algoneurodystrophy. Pediatric orthopedics / deformities and dislocations /.

Day 3: Oncology / Bone and soft tissue primary and secondary tumors, their diagnosis and treatment /. Repetition of state exam questions and other student questions from orthopaedics.

Recommended literature

1. Salter, R.B.: Textbook of Disorders and Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System, Williams&Wilkins, 687 s. 

2. Steinberg, G.G.:  Ramamurti´s Orthopaedics in Primary Care Wiliams&Wilkins, 390s.

3. Rockwood and Green´f Fractures in Adults, Lippincott Wiliams&Wilkins, 1275s. , volume 1,2,3.

Obligatory textbook of „ORTHOPEADICS

MERCER´s  TEXTBOOK of ORTHAPAEDICS and TRAUMA, Tenth Edition, Ed. Sivananthan, S. and coll, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2012, 1620 p.

Recommended Textbooks of „Orthopaedics“

1.    BASIC ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCES, Second Edition, Edited by Ramachandran, M., CEC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2017, 524 p.

2.    ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA The Stanmore and Royal London, Guide, Edited by Dawson-Bowling, S. and coll., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2014,438 p.