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I. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Exam in Surgery 5th Grade – QUESTIONS

Exam in Surgery 5th Grade – QUESTIONS

The exam will take place in person, oral form in surgical clinics

1. Acute appendicitis

2. Intracranial bleeding, Hematoma subdural, epidural

3. Pancreatic injuries

4. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of pancreatic tumors

5. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)

6. Luxations on the upper limb (humeroscapular, elbow, wrist and carpal bones, interphalangeal joints)

7. Tracheostomy, conicotomy (indication, procedure)

8. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba

9. Spleen injuries

10. Portal hypertension

11. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)

12. Blunt chest injuries

13. Hernia incarcerata

14. Bladder carcinoma

15. Hemoperitoneum

16. Cholelithiasis

17. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors

18. Arthroscopy of the knee, shoulder, ankle, hip joint (indications, principles)

19. Ileus mechanical, strangulation, volvulus, intussusception

20. Skin transplantation and combined flaps (characteristics, distribution and indications)

21. Open fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

22. Achalasia and its treatment

23. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)

24. Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

25. Pancreatitis acute (characteristics, diagnosis, therapy)

26. Dupuytren's contracture (differential diagnosis), camptodactyly, post-traumatic contractures on the hand

27. Volkmann's ischemic contracture

28. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the small intestine

29. Burn disease, burns – division

30. Subdural hematoma

31. Foreign bodies in GIT

32. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

33. Fractures of the skull and base of the skull

34. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of rectal cancer

35. Brain abscess

36. Characterize high-energy and low-energy trauma, the mechanism of occurrence, the effect of energy on the type of injury, the specifics of anamnesis, diagnostics, traffic accidents, clarify a comprehensive approach to the patient

37. Pressure ulcers (pathophysiology, distribution, prevention and treatment)

38. Neurogenic urinary disorders

39. Commotio et contusio cerebri

40. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the gallbladder and bile ducts

41. Urolithiasis

42. Epidural hematoma

43. Breast tumors (in general, diagnosis, classification), comprehensive treatment of breast tumors

44. Frostbite

45. Kidney injuries

46. Ileitis terminalis – M. Crohn (complications, surgical treatment)

47. Bleeding from the upper GIT

48. Discectomy, decompression, stabilization and fusion on the spine (characteristics, indications)

49. The essence of anesthesia, local, lead, regional anesthesia

50. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

51. Injuries of the liver and bile ducts

52. Furunculus, carbunculus, cheillitis, phlegmon, abscess, lymphadenitis, erysipelas, erysipeloid

53. Vertebral fractures (basic division, compression, community)

54. Blunt abdominal injuries

55. Pelveoperitonitis

56. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the mediastinum

57. Fractures of the thoracic spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

58. Blood transfusion (indications, execution, blood derivatives, complications)

59. Stereotaxis

60. Spinal cord injuries

61. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of stomach tumors

62. Kidney and urinary tract infections, urosepsis

63. Perinatal trauma and its importance for child development

64. Shock (general, septic, hypovolemic, burn)

65. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors

66. Polydactyly, syndactyly, peromelia, phocomelia

67. Postoperative infusion therapy

68. Omphalocele, gastroschisis

69. Fractures of the diaphysis of the lower leg and ankle area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

70. Thrombosis and embolism of mesenteric vessels

71. Atresia of the duodenum, small and large intestine

72. Congenital hip dysplasia (characteristics, diagnosis, screening, treatment)

73. Panaricia (superficial and deep), phlegmons of the palm

74. Phimosis, paraphimosis, balantitis

75. Total, subtotal amputations, replantation and revascularization, patient and amputee transport to the replantation center, ischemia time

76. Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

77. Testis anomalies, hypospadias and epispadias

78. Epicondylitis humeri radialis, ulnaris, tendovaginitis stenotisans flexor digitorum manus

79. Esophageal diverticula and their surgical treatment

80. Cardiac tamponade

81. Soft tissue tumors of the musculoskeletal system (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment) 

82. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of colon cancer

83. Complications of burns, their diagnosis and treatment

84. Pathological changes on the chest (pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, pectus infundibulare)

85. Postoperative complications of the surgical wound

86. Congenital defects of the biliary tract

87. Primary malignant and benign bone tumors (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment)

88. Pylethrombosis

89. Transplantation (general principles, donation, distribution), tissue transplants, organ transplants

90. Fractures of the talus, calcaneus, tarsus, metatarsals and phalanges of the foot (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

91. Prolapsus ani et recti

92. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the spinal cord and spinal cord covers

93. Fractures (diagnosis and classification), principles of treatment (conservative and operative), osteosynthetic material, minimally invasive surgical techniques

94. Pancreatitis chronica (characteristics, surgical treatment)

95. Wound healing, pathological scar, chronic wounds (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, therapy)

96. Osteomalacia and Paget's disease (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

97. Anaerobic infections in surgery

98. Teratomas

99. Fractures in the diaphysis of the humerus and elbow (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

100. Hernia diaphragmatica, reflux esophagitis

101. Anorectal malformations

102. Secondary bone tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

103. Postoperative complications (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, treatment)

104. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)

105. Osteotomy, arthrodesis, synovectomy (characteristics, indications)

106. Colitis ulcerosa (characteristics, surgical treatment)

107. Urolithiasis

108. Peculiarities of fractures and dislocations in childhood

109. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST (epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment)

110. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)

111. Fractures of the cervical spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

112. Obstructive jaundice (differential diagnosis)

113. Tendon injuries, principle of tenosuture, tendon transplantation and transposition

114. Bursitis, tendinitis, tendovaginitis, enthesopathy, peripheral nerve narrowing syndrome

115. Nodi haemorrhoidales

116. Bladder carcinoma

117. Fractures in the area of the diaphysis of the bones of the forearm, the area of the wrist, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges of the hand (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

118. Struma nodosa (surgical treatment, complications, thyroid tumors)

119. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)

120. Infectious and parainfectious non-specific arthritis, borreliosis, viral arthritis (HIV)

121. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the parathyroid glands

122. Reconstructive and radiological procedures on the arterial system

123. Deformities of the spine - scoliosis, kyphosis, spondylolisthesis (characteristics, diagnosis and treatment)

124. Melanoma and pigmented nevi

125. Hydrocephalus

126. Pedes plani et planovalgi (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

127. Abdomen acutum (distribution, characteristics)

128. Congenital defects of the hand

129. Acute and chronic osteomyelitis (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

130. Perforation of the esophagus

131. Tumors of the testis

132. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

133. Abscessus cavi Douglasi

134. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations

135. Congenital leg defects (pes equinovarus, pes excavatus, ...) (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

136. Acute cholecystitis 

137. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)

138. Spinal pain of non-inflammatory etiology (characteristics, specifics according to individual locations, diagnosis, treatment)

139. Internal hernia in the abdominal cavity

140. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors

141. Arthrosis (characteristics, most common locations, diagnosis and treatment, endoprostheses, types of their anchoring)

142. General principles of diagnostics and treatment of tumors

143. Hirschsprung's disease

144. Fractures of the scapula, clavicle and proximal part of the humerus (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

145. Biliary peritonitis

146. Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)

147. Root syndromes (cervical, lumbosacral, cauda equina syndrome) diagnosis and treatment

148. Hernia (distribution and characteristics), hernia umbilicalis, hernia paraumbilicalis, hernia in cicatrice, hernia linea alba

149. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)

150. Intracranial hemorrhage

151. Malignant breast tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)

152. Facial nerve paresis (etiology, diagnosis, surgical treatment, static and dynamic treatment)

153. Luxations on the lower limb (hip joint, knee, ankle, Choparts joint)

154. Peritonitis (distribution, characteristics)

155. Intestinal rotation disorders – Ladd's syndrome

156. Fractures of the proximal femur (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

157. Hernia inguinalis et femoralis

158. Meconium ileus, meconium peritonitis

159. Acute and chronic knee damage (clinical and imaging examination, diagnosis and treatment)

160. Paralytic ileus

161. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors

162. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

163. Ulcus duodeni, ulcus ventriculi

164. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)

165. Compartment syndrome (extremity and abdomen)

166. Differential diagnosis of bleeding into the GIT

167. Esophageal atresia

168. Aseptic bone necrosis (characteristics, diagnosis, most common locations, treatment)

169. Diverticulosis of the colon

170. Ductus omphaloentericus persistens, urachus persistens

171. Complications of fracture healing, prolonged healing, pseudarthrosis, fractura male sanata (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)

172. Ileus (distribution, characteristics)

173. Tumors of the testis

174. Examination and management of a patient with polytrauma (principles of treatment, Damage Control, advanced post-traumatic resuscitation (ATLS - Advanced Trauma Life Support)

175. Cystae et pseudocystae pancreatis

176. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of lung tumors

177. Fractures of ribs and sternum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

178. Pylorostenosis et pylorospasmus

179. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors

180. Inflammatory diseases of the spine autoimmune e.g. Morbus Bechterev, bacterial, specific (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

181. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors

182. Clefts and congenital developmental defects of the face (division, timing of surgery, multidisciplinary approach)

183. Fractures of the femoral shaft and knee area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)

184. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal tumors

185. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba

186. Tendon injuries on the limbs, diagnosis, classification and treatment (sutures and types of rehabilitation)

Surgery State exam questions GM

Surgery State exam questions GM

State final exam in surgery

State final exam in surgery

Conditions for passing „The surgery 4“ test

This test contains a total 20 questions from orthopedics, traumatology, plastic surgery, burn surgery and pediatric surgery.

Of the four answers, only one is correct:

Test evaluation:            20-19 correct answers -  A

18-17 correct answers – B

16-15 correct answers – C

14-13 correct answers – D

12-11 correct answers -  E

10 and less – FX

The test is performed online with the MOODLE program. The test duration is exactly 15 minutes.

Test dates:

Ordinary date - The test in Slovak language     

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  15.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             15.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                15.00 hod.

Ordinary date - The test in English language    

8.6.2021 (Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday)             11.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday)                11.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   -  The test in Slovak language     

22.6.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            10.00 hod.

1st. Reparative date   - The test in English language    

22.6.2021 Tuesday)                  11.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday)            11.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  -  The test in Slovak language     

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 10.00 hod.

2nd. Reparative date  - The test in English language    

31.8.2021 (Tuesday)                 11.00 hod.

Orthopaedic lectures

1. Introduction to orthopaedics - development of connective tissue and skeletal ossification, types of bone and cartilage, articular cartilage. Spine development from somites. Clinical examination of orthopaedic patient: joints, walking, goniomentry of large joints, Q angle of the patella, ...

Lecturer: MUDr. Ján Paukovic, CSc.

2. Scoliosis: formation, prevention, conservative and surgical treatment. Chest deformities (pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum).

Lecturer: MUDr. Juraj Horváth, PhD., MUDr. Peter Tisovský,PhD.

3. Surgical treatment of degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of spine classification of spinal injuries, conservative therapy: reclination, corsets.

Operating therapy: types of stabilization according to location, neurological symptomatology, principles of surgical treatment.

Lecturer: MUDr. Peter Tisovský, PhD. / MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.

4. Oncoorthopaedics and inflammatory diseases in orthopaedics

a/ primary tumors of the skeleton, hard and soft tissue and their treatment: WHO classification of tumors, Enneking classification GTM, principles of oncological treatment, individual endoprosthesis, ...

b / secondary skeletal tumors and their treatment: the most common bone metastases, impending fractures: Mirels classification, ... and pathological fractures. Principles of surgical treatment of metastatic fractures.

Tumor-like affections: Fibrous cortical defect of metaphysis, ...

Origins and types of infection spreading. Specific infections: tbc, Charcot joint, ... non-specific and rare inflammation: ostitis sclerosans Garré, Brodie abscess and osteomyelitis albuminosa. Complications of chronic suppuration: the role of the growth plates in spreading of inflammation, amyloidosis, ... treatment.

Periprosthetic infection

Lecturer: MUDr. Andrey Švec, PhD.


Orthopaedic and orthopaedic traumatology lectures are carried out in cooperation I.OTK, II. OTK and Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic.

Sylabus of practical training in subject of orthopaedics

IV. year general medicine:

Day 1: medical documentation of orthopaedic patient, basic information about orthopedics, diagnostic methods /clinical examination, imaging: X-ray, Scintigraphy, CT, MRI/ - presentation of patients on orthopaedic department, their documentation, assisting during basic therapeutic procedures on ward / venepuncture, joint puncture, surgical wound care and dressing, taking of biological material and samples/

Day 2: bandages and first-aid equipment, plastering and plaster casts, basic instrumentation and materials /endoprosthesis, materials used in traumatology/

V. year general medicine:

Day 1: Definition and scope of orthopaedics. Recapitulation of the development and regeneration of connective tissues / mostly bone and cartilage, joint structure /. Examination of orthopaedic patient / clinical examination, range of motion in the joints, physiological position in the joints, arthrodesis and arthroplasty /. Assistant examination methods and imaging in orthopaedics /plain radiographs., Scintigraphy, CT, MR/. Demonstration of the patients of the clinic.

Day 2: Joint diseases / arthrosis, inflammation - clinical findings and imaging diagnostic methods /. Pediatric orthopaedics / deformities and dilocations: scoliosis, clubfoot, torticollis myogenes, d.d.h. and congenital dislocation of hip joints/, aseptic bone necrosis, deformations and teratology of skeleton. Oncology / basic theoretical knowledge, primary and secondary tumors of connective tissue, the treatment of oncologic patients: primary tumors and metastasis/.

Day 3: Systemic diseases of the skeleton /congenital: chondral production disorders, osteoproductive disorders, mixed forms, obtained: hormonal, metabolic, osteoporosis and osteomalation /. Skeletal trauma and connective tissue trauma / distorsions and fractures - diagnosis, classification, treatment of trauma is adults and children /

VI.year general medicine:

Day 1: Traumatology / distorsions, opened and closed fractures and their classification, pathologic fractures, pseudoarthrosis and classification of pseudoarthrosis, dislocations, amputations, orthopaedic prosthetics / - focused on questions of state examinations and also on distribution to various parts of the skeleton / spine, joints, shaft of long bones /. Clinical examination and imaging diagnostic methods. Differential diagnosis of traumatism / specific and non-specific inflammation, tumors and pseudotumours/. Adaptation and stable osteosynthesis, most modern therapeutic principles and methods.

Day 2: Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeleton / mainly arthrosis, formation of arthrosis, diagnosis and treatment /. Metabolic bone diseases /rickets, scurvy, osteporosis and osteomalation/. Nonspecific bacterial inflammation / nosocomial infections / and their diagnosis and treatment /mainly osteomyelitis /. Specific inflammations /tuberculosis, syphilis/. Muscular and neuromuscular diseases, canal syndromes, algoneurodystrophy. Pediatric orthopedics / deformities and dislocations /.

Day 3: Oncology / Bone and soft tissue primary and secondary tumors, their diagnosis and treatment /. Repetition of state exam questions and other student questions from orthopaedics.

Recommended literature

1. Salter, R.B.: Textbook of Disorders and Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System, Williams&Wilkins, 687 s. 

2. Steinberg, G.G.:  Ramamurti´s Orthopaedics in Primary Care Wiliams&Wilkins, 390s.

3. Rockwood and Green´f Fractures in Adults, Lippincott Wiliams&Wilkins, 1275s. , volume 1,2,3.

Obligatory textbook of „ORTHOPEADICS

MERCER´s  TEXTBOOK of ORTHAPAEDICS and TRAUMA, Tenth Edition, Ed. Sivananthan, S. and coll, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2012, 1620 p.

Recommended Textbooks of „Orthopaedics“

1.    BASIC ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCES, Second Edition, Edited by Ramachandran, M., CEC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2017, 524 p.

2.    ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA The Stanmore and Royal London, Guide, Edited by Dawson-Bowling, S. and coll., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2014,438 p.