I. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
I. Block of questions
Antisepsis and asepsis, disinfection, sterilization
Preoperative patients preparing
The essence of anesthesia - concept - division - premedication
Local anesthesia: infiltrative, regional
Blood transfusion - technique + indication
Complications of blood transfusions
Blood derivatives and replacement solutions
Tracheotomy and conicotomy, indication, procedure
Preoperative preparing of a diabetic patient
Preoperative preparing for colon surgery
Intensive postoperative patient care
Nutrition of the operated patient
Postoperative infusion therapy
Total parenteral nutrition
Disorders of water and electrolyte management
Acid-base balance disorders
Disorders of the digestive system
Pressure ulcers - prevention and treatment
Postoperative complications in the area of the surgical wound
Healing of surgical wounds
Postoperative complications of the respiratory system
Postoperative urological complications
Postoperative complications of the cardiovascular system
Phlebothrombosis and thrombophlebitis
Postoperative thromboembolic complications
Air and fat embolism
Surgical procedure, indications
Distribution and characteristics of wounds
Prevention of tetanus
Diagnostic methods in urology
Diagnostic methods in vascular surgery
Puncture of the peritoneal cavity
Bladder and Douglas space puncture
Antibiotics in surgery
Operations for sudden (acute) abdominal events
The most common congenital abdominal defects in childhood
Childhood injuries - differences, in general
Transplantation - general principles and prerequisites
Postoperative patient care
Air and fat embolism
Examination of a surgical patient - surgical medical record
Preparing the patient for surgery - in general
Postoperative GIT complications
II. Block of questions
Burns – first aid and treatment
Burns - distribution and clinical course
Muscle and tendon injuries
Distribution of fractures
Conservative treatment of fractures
Surgical treatment of fractures
Head and face injury
Fractures of the base of the skull
Bleeding in the brain
Management of the patient with multiple injuries
Injuries of urinary organs
Crush and blast syndrome
Rehabilitation after injuries
Symptoms of inflammatory surgical diseases
Lymphangitis and lymphadenitis
Furunculus and carbunculus, folliculitis
Erysipelas and erysipeloid
Purulent disease of fingers and hand
Tendosynovitis and tendovaginitis (peritendinitis) and Bursitis
Anaerobic wound infections
Benign tumors and their treatment
Principles of treatment of malignant tumors
Amputations and their indications
Skin plastic surgery
Transplantation - general principles and prerequisites
Principles of organizing surgical aid in mass accidents and disasters
Specific infections, AIDS - protection and prevention in surgical diseases
Exam in Surgery 5th Grade – QUESTIONS
The exam will take place in person, oral form in surgical clinics
1. Acute appendicitis
2. Intracranial bleeding, Hematoma subdural, epidural
3. Pancreatic injuries
4. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of pancreatic tumors
5. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)
6. Luxations on the upper limb (humeroscapular, elbow, wrist and carpal bones, interphalangeal joints)
7. Tracheostomy, conicotomy (indication, procedure)
8. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba
9. Spleen injuries
10. Portal hypertension
11. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)
12. Blunt chest injuries
13. Hernia incarcerata
14. Bladder carcinoma
17. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors
18. Arthroscopy of the knee, shoulder, ankle, hip joint (indications, principles)
19. Ileus mechanical, strangulation, volvulus, intussusception
20. Open fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)
21. Achalasia and its treatment
22. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)
23. Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
24. Pancreatitis acute (characteristics, diagnosis, therapy)
25. Dupuytren's contracture (differential diagnosis), camptodactyly, post-traumatic contractures on the hand
26. Volkmann's ischemic contracture
27. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the small intestine
28. Burn disease, burns – division
29. Subdural hematoma
30. Foreign bodies in GIT
31. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors
32. Fractures of the skull and base of the skull
33. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of rectal cancer
34. Brain abscess
35. Characterize high-energy and low-energy trauma, the mechanism of occurrence, the effect of energy on the type of injury, the specifics of anamnesis, diagnostics, traffic accidents, clarify a comprehensive approach to the patient
36. Pressure ulcers (pathophysiology, distribution, prevention and treatment)
37. Neurogenic urinary disorders
38. Commotio et contusio cerebri
39. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of tumors of the gallbladder and bile ducts
41. Epidural hematoma
42. Breast tumors (in general, diagnosis, classification), comprehensive treatment of breast tumors
44. Kidney injuries
45. Ileitis terminalis – M. Crohn (complications, surgical treatment)
46. Bleeding from the upper GIT
47. Discectomy, decompression, stabilization and fusion on the spine (characteristics, indications)
48. The essence of anesthesia, local, lead, regional anesthesia
49. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors
50. Injuries of the liver and bile ducts
51. Furunculus, carbunculus, cheillitis, phlegmon, abscess, lymphadenitis, erysipelas, erysipeloid
52. Vertebral fractures (basic division, compression, community)
53. Blunt abdominal injuries
55. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the mediastinum
56. Fractures of the thoracic spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
57. Blood transfusion (indications, execution, blood derivatives, complications)
59. Spinal cord injuries
60. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of stomach tumors
61. Kidney and urinary tract infections, urosepsis
62. Perinatal trauma and its importance for child development
63. Shock (general, septic, hypovolemic, burn)
64. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of kidney tumors
65. Polydactyly, syndactyly, peromelia, phocomelia
66. Postoperative infusion therapy
67. Omphalocele, gastroschisis
68. Fractures of the diaphysis of the lower leg and ankle area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
69. Thrombosis and embolism of mesenteric vessels
70. Atresia of the duodenum, small and large intestine
71. Congenital hip dysplasia (characteristics, diagnosis, screening, treatment)
72. Panaricia (superficial and deep), phlegmons of the palm
73. Phimosis, paraphimosis, balantitis
74. Total, subtotal amputations, replantation and revascularization, patient and amputee transport to the replantation center, ischemia time
75. Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)
76. Testis anomalies, hypospadias and epispadias
77. Epicondylitis humeri radialis, ulnaris, tendovaginitis stenotisans flexor digitorum manus
78. Esophageal diverticula and their surgical treatment
79. Cardiac tamponade
80. Soft tissue tumors of the musculoskeletal system (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment)
81. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of colon cancer
82. Complications of burns, their diagnosis and treatment
83. Pathological changes on the chest (pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, pectus infundibulare)
84. Postoperative complications of the surgical wound
85. Congenital defects of the biliary tract
86. Primary malignant and benign bone tumors (diagnosis, classification, staging, treatment)
88. Transplantation (general principles, donation, distribution), tissue transplants, organ transplants
89. Fractures of the talus, calcaneus, tarsus, metatarsals and phalanges of the foot (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
90. Prolapsus ani et recti
91. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the spinal cord and spinal cord covers
92. Fractures (diagnosis and classification), principles of treatment (conservative and operative), osteosynthetic material, minimally invasive surgical techniques
93. Pancreatitis chronica (characteristics, surgical treatment)
94. Wound healing, pathological scar, chronic wounds (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, therapy)
95. Osteomalacia and Paget's disease (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)
96. Anaerobic infections in surgery
98. Fractures in the diaphysis of the humerus and elbow (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
99. Hernia diaphragmatica, reflux esophagitis
100. Anorectal malformations
101. Secondary bone tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)
102. Postoperative complications (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, treatment)
103. Hemothorax and fluidothorax (diagnosis, treatment)
104. Osteotomy, arthrodesis, synovectomy (characteristics, indications)
105. Colitis ulcerosa (characteristics, surgical treatment)
107. Peculiarities of fractures and dislocations in childhood
108. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST (epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment)
109. Prostate cancer (locally advanced, disseminated)
110. Fractures of the cervical spine (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
111. Obstructive jaundice (differential diagnosis)
112. Tendon injuries, principle of tenosuture, tendon transplantation and transposition
113. Bursitis, tendinitis, tendovaginitis, enthesopathy, peripheral nerve narrowing syndrome
114. Nodi haemorrhoidales
115. Bladder carcinoma
116. Fractures in the area of the diaphysis of the bones of the forearm, the area of the wrist, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges of the hand (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
117. Struma nodosa (surgical treatment, complications, thyroid tumors)
118. Pneumothorax (traumatic, non-traumatic, diagnosis and treatment)
119. Infectious and parainfectious non-specific arthritis, borreliosis, viral arthritis (HIV)
120. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of tumors of the parathyroid glands
121. Reconstructive and radiological procedures on the arterial system
122. Deformities of the spine - scoliosis, kyphosis, spondylolisthesis (characteristics, diagnosis and treatment)
124. Pedes plani et planovalgi (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)
125. Abdomen acutum (distribution, characteristics)
126. Congenital defects of the hand
127. Acute and chronic osteomyelitis (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
128. Perforation of the esophagus
129. Tumors of the testis
130. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
131. Abscessus cavi Douglasi
132. Congenital leg defects (pes equinovarus, pes excavatus, ...) (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)
133. Acute cholecystitis
134. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)
135. Spinal pain of non-inflammatory etiology (characteristics, specifics according to individual locations, diagnosis, treatment)
136. Internal hernia in the abdominal cavity
137. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain tumors
138. Arthrosis (characteristics, most common locations, diagnosis and treatment, endoprostheses, types of their anchoring)
139. General principles of diagnostics and treatment of tumors
140. Hirschsprung's disease
141. Fractures of the scapula, clavicle and proximal part of the humerus (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
142. Biliary peritonitis
143. Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment)
144. Root syndromes (cervical, lumbosacral, cauda equina syndrome) diagnosis and treatment
145. Hernia (distribution and characteristics), hernia umbilicalis, hernia paraumbilicalis, hernia in cicatrice, hernia linea alba
146. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)
147. Intracranial hemorrhage
148. Malignant breast tumors (characteristics, diagnosis, treatment)
149. Luxations on the lower limb (hip joint, knee, ankle, Choparts joint)
150. Peritonitis (distribution, characteristics)
151. Intestinal rotation disorders – Ladd's syndrome
152. Fractures of the proximal femur (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
153. Hernia inguinalis et femoralis
154. Meconium ileus, meconium peritonitis
155. Acute and chronic knee damage (clinical and imaging examination, diagnosis and treatment)
156. Paralytic ileus
157. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors
158. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
159. Ulcus duodeni, ulcus ventriculi
160. Mediastinitis (diagnosis and treatment)
161. Compartment syndrome (extremity and abdomen)
162. Differential diagnosis of bleeding into the GIT
163. Esophageal atresia
164. Aseptic bone necrosis (characteristics, diagnosis, most common locations, treatment)
165. Diverticulosis of the colon
166. Ductus omphaloentericus persistens, urachus persistens
167. Complications of fracture healing, prolonged healing, pseudarthrosis, fractura male sanata (characteristics, classification, diagnosis and treatment)
168. Ileus (distribution, characteristics)
169. Tumors of the testis
170. Examination and management of a patient with polytrauma (principles of treatment, Damage Control, advanced post-traumatic resuscitation (ATLS - Advanced Trauma Life Support)
171. Cystae et pseudocystae pancreatis
172. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of lung tumors
173. Fractures of ribs and sternum (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
174. Pylorostenosis et pylorospasmus
175. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors
176. Inflammatory diseases of the spine autoimmune e.g. Morbus Bechterev, bacterial, specific (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
177. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors
178. Fractures of the femoral shaft and knee area (characteristics, classification, diagnosis, treatment)
179. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal tumors
180. Thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, phlegmasia cerulea alba
181. Tendon injuries on the limbs, diagnosis, classification and treatment (sutures and types of rehabilitation)
This test contains a total 20 questions from orthopedics, traumatology, plastic surgery, burn surgery and pediatric surgery.
Of the four answers, only one is correct:
Test evaluation: 20-19 correct answers - A
18-17 correct answers – B
16-15 correct answers – C
14-13 correct answers – D
12-11 correct answers - E
10 and less – FX
The test is performed online with the MOODLE program. The test duration is exactly 15 minutes.
Ordinary date - The test in Slovak language
8.6.2021 (Tuesday) 15.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday) 15.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday) 15.00 hod.
Ordinary date - The test in English language
8.6.2021 (Tuesday) 11.00 hod.
9.6.2021 (Wednesday) 11.00 hod.
10.6.2021 (Thursday) 11.00 hod.
1st. Reparative date - The test in Slovak language
22.6.2021 (Tuesday) 10.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday) 10.00 hod.
1st. Reparative date - The test in English language
22.6.2021 Tuesday) 11.00 hod.
23.6.2021 (Wednesday) 11.00 hod.
2nd. Reparative date - The test in Slovak language
31.8.2021 (Tuesday) 10.00 hod.
2nd. Reparative date - The test in English language
31.8.2021 (Tuesday) 11.00 hod.
1. Introduction to orthopaedics - development of connective tissue and skeletal ossification, types of bone and cartilage, articular cartilage. Spine development from somites. Clinical examination of orthopaedic patient: joints, walking, goniomentry of large joints, Q angle of the patella, ...
Lecturer: MUDr. Ján Paukovic, CSc.
2. Scoliosis: formation, prevention, conservative and surgical treatment. Chest deformities (pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum).
Lecturer: MUDr. Juraj Horváth, PhD., MUDr. Peter Tisovský,PhD.
3. Surgical treatment of degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of spine classification of spinal injuries, conservative therapy: reclination, corsets.
Operating therapy: types of stabilization according to location, neurological symptomatology, principles of surgical treatment.
Lecturer: MUDr. Peter Tisovský, PhD. / MUDr. Martin Žabka, PhD.
4. Oncoorthopaedics and inflammatory diseases in orthopaedics
a/ primary tumors of the skeleton, hard and soft tissue and their treatment: WHO classification of tumors, Enneking classification GTM, principles of oncological treatment, individual endoprosthesis, ...
b / secondary skeletal tumors and their treatment: the most common bone metastases, impending fractures: Mirels classification, ... and pathological fractures. Principles of surgical treatment of metastatic fractures.
Tumor-like affections: Fibrous cortical defect of metaphysis, ...
Origins and types of infection spreading. Specific infections: tbc, Charcot joint, ... non-specific and rare inflammation: ostitis sclerosans Garré, Brodie abscess and osteomyelitis albuminosa. Complications of chronic suppuration: the role of the growth plates in spreading of inflammation, amyloidosis, ... treatment.
Lecturer: MUDr. Andrey Švec, PhD.
Orthopaedic and orthopaedic traumatology lectures are carried out in cooperation I.OTK, II. OTK and Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic.
IV. year general medicine:
Day 1: medical documentation of orthopaedic patient, basic information about orthopedics, diagnostic methods /clinical examination, imaging: X-ray, Scintigraphy, CT, MRI/ - presentation of patients on orthopaedic department, their documentation, assisting during basic therapeutic procedures on ward / venepuncture, joint puncture, surgical wound care and dressing, taking of biological material and samples/
Day 2: bandages and first-aid equipment, plastering and plaster casts, basic instrumentation and materials /endoprosthesis, materials used in traumatology/
V. year general medicine:
Day 1: Definition and scope of orthopaedics. Recapitulation of the development and regeneration of connective tissues / mostly bone and cartilage, joint structure /. Examination of orthopaedic patient / clinical examination, range of motion in the joints, physiological position in the joints, arthrodesis and arthroplasty /. Assistant examination methods and imaging in orthopaedics /plain radiographs., Scintigraphy, CT, MR/. Demonstration of the patients of the clinic.
Day 2: Joint diseases / arthrosis, inflammation - clinical findings and imaging diagnostic methods /. Pediatric orthopaedics / deformities and dilocations: scoliosis, clubfoot, torticollis myogenes, d.d.h. and congenital dislocation of hip joints/, aseptic bone necrosis, deformations and teratology of skeleton. Oncology / basic theoretical knowledge, primary and secondary tumors of connective tissue, the treatment of oncologic patients: primary tumors and metastasis/.
Day 3: Systemic diseases of the skeleton /congenital: chondral production disorders, osteoproductive disorders, mixed forms, obtained: hormonal, metabolic, osteoporosis and osteomalation /. Skeletal trauma and connective tissue trauma / distorsions and fractures - diagnosis, classification, treatment of trauma is adults and children /
VI.year general medicine:
Day 1: Traumatology / distorsions, opened and closed fractures and their classification, pathologic fractures, pseudoarthrosis and classification of pseudoarthrosis, dislocations, amputations, orthopaedic prosthetics / - focused on questions of state examinations and also on distribution to various parts of the skeleton / spine, joints, shaft of long bones /. Clinical examination and imaging diagnostic methods. Differential diagnosis of traumatism / specific and non-specific inflammation, tumors and pseudotumours/. Adaptation and stable osteosynthesis, most modern therapeutic principles and methods.
Day 2: Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeleton / mainly arthrosis, formation of arthrosis, diagnosis and treatment /. Metabolic bone diseases /rickets, scurvy, osteporosis and osteomalation/. Nonspecific bacterial inflammation / nosocomial infections / and their diagnosis and treatment /mainly osteomyelitis /. Specific inflammations /tuberculosis, syphilis/. Muscular and neuromuscular diseases, canal syndromes, algoneurodystrophy. Pediatric orthopedics / deformities and dislocations /.
Day 3: Oncology / Bone and soft tissue primary and secondary tumors, their diagnosis and treatment /. Repetition of state exam questions and other student questions from orthopaedics.
1. Salter, R.B.: Textbook of Disorders and Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System, Williams&Wilkins, 687 s.
2. Steinberg, G.G.: Ramamurti´s Orthopaedics in Primary Care Wiliams&Wilkins, 390s.
3. Rockwood and Green´f Fractures in Adults, Lippincott Wiliams&Wilkins, 1275s. , volume 1,2,3.
MERCER´s TEXTBOOK of ORTHAPAEDICS and TRAUMA, Tenth Edition, Ed. Sivananthan, S. and coll, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2012, 1620 p.
1. BASIC ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCES, Second Edition, Edited by Ramachandran, M., CEC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2017, 524 p.
2. ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA The Stanmore and Royal London, Guide, Edited by Dawson-Bowling, S. and coll., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2014,438 p.