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General Medicine

Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures - General Medicine, Academic year 2016/2017



1., 24th February 2017.  Introduction to the study of Immunology. Antigen.

(Prof. M. Buc)                                                                   

-     Introduction to the study of Immunology, milestones of Immunology

-     The immune system, its characteristics

-     Natural and acquired immunity

-     Antigen, its characteristic and properties


2., 3rd March 2017.   Structure and function of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies. Acute phase proteins.

(Prof. M. Buc)                                                                     

-     B cells, plasma cells

-     Immunoglobulins, their structure, classification and function

-     Biological properties of immunoglobulins

-     Primary and secondary immune responses

-     Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies

-     Acute phase proteins


3., 10th March 2017.  The complement system.  Phagocytosis I.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová)                                                          

-     Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of activation

-     Vasoactive and chemotactic factors

-     Biological significance of the complement system

-     Receptors, regulatory proteins, hereditary angioedema

-     History of the phagocytosis discovery

-     Professional phagocytes, process of phagocytosis


4., 17th March 2017.  Phagocytosis II. Pattern recognition receptors and pathogen associated molecular patterns.

(Prof. M. Buc)                                                   

-     Oxygene dependent microbicidial mechanisms

-     Nitrogen microbicidial mechanisms

-     Bactericidial proteins and peptides

-     Infectious and non-infectious inflammation,

-     Molecular and cellular basis of inflammation, resolution of inflammation

-     Pathogen associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors


5., 24th March 2017The major histocompatibility complex in man. Membrane molecules of cells of the immune system.

(Ass. prof. I. Shawkatová)

-     HLA-molecules, genetic determination, biochemical structure, distribution and biological significance of HLA molecules

-     The HLA-complex in organ and tissue transplantations

-     Membrane antigens, their characteristics, and nomenclature


6.,  31st March 2017.  Antigen presentation. T cells, NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells.

(Prof. M. Buc)                                                                       

-     Endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen presentation

-     T cells, their receptors and subsets

-     CD1 and MR1 presentation pathways

-     NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells, their characteristic, receptors, and function                                                


7th April 2017.  Immunology Conference  – NO LECTURE


14th April 2017.  EASTER  – NO LECTURE


7.,  21th April 2017.  General properties of cytokines. Polarization of T helper cells. Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Systemic inflammation. SIRS. Sepsis. Chemokines.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová)                                                         

-     General properties of cytokines.

-     Cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immunity.

-     Polarization of helper T cells.

-     Proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines.

-     Systemic inflammation. SIRS, sepsis.

-     Cytokines that stimulate haematopoiesis.

-     Chemokines and their receptors.


8., 28th April 2017.  Breakdown of central and peripheral tolerance. Autoimmunity. Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy. Autoinflammatory diseases.

(prof. M. Buc)                                                                         

-     Central and peripheral tolerance to self antigens. Breakdown of tolerance

-     Genetic and hormonal factors in autoimmunity

-     Pathogenic mechanisms of the development of autoimmune processes

-     The role of antigens in autoimmune development

-     Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases and their immunotherapy.

-     Autoinflammatory diseases, mechanisms of their development, clinical manifestations and treatment


9., 5th May 2017.  Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid (non-IgE pseudoallergic) reactions, therapy. Histamine intolerance.

(Ass prof. M. Bucová)                                                                

-     Hypersensitivity reactions type I.

-     Atopy and anaphylaxis 

-     Mediators of allergic reaction

-     Allergens, Clinical symptomatology of allergy

-     Anaphylactic shock, pseudoallergic reactions,

-     Therapy of allergy and anaphylactic shock

-     Histamine intolerance, laboratory diagnosis, therapy


10., 12th May 2017.  Hypersensitivity reactions types II - V.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová)                                                                  

-     Type II of hypersensitivity reactions. Drug hypersensitivity, ABO and Rh system incompatibility

-     Type III of hypersensitivity reactions. Immune complexes and diseases. Local Arthus reaction, serum sickness

-     Type IV of hypersensitivity reactions. Cell mediated hypersensitivity. Contact dermatitis, photoallergic dermatitis, ...

-     Type V of hypersensitivity reactions. Myasthenia gravis and M. Graves


11., 19th May 2017.  Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová)                                                                                             

-     Immunodeficiencies – general properties

-     An overview of primary immunodeficiencies

-     Etiological agents of AIDS. Genetic variability of HIV

-     Interaction of HIV with cells of the immune system

-     Stages of an infection development


12., 26th May 2017.  Vaccination. Anti-infectious immunity. Immunity to tumours.

(Prof. M. Buc)                                                                     

-     Vaccination, active and passive immunisation

-     Immune defense mechanisms against bacteria, viruses and parasites.

-     Malignant transformation of cells, effector mechanisms against tumours

-     Escape of tumours cells from immune surveillance mechanisms

-     Metastatic processes. Immunotherapy of tumours



Bratislava, February 4, 2017.                                             


          Ass. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D., PhD.

          Head of the department


The lectures will be held in the Ladziansky auditorium on Friday, from 7:30 a.m. till 10:20 a.m.

Syllabus of practical classes

Syllabus of practical classes - General Medicine, Academic year 2016/2017



1. (27. 02. – 03. 03. 2017)  

Serologic Reactions I          

Classical methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Agglutination

·        Precipitation

·        Radial immunodiffusion and other immunodiffusion techniques

Practical experiments:

-         ABO blood groups and Rh-factor determination

-        Evaluation of antibodies against Treponema pallidum by passive haemagglutination


2. (06. 03. – 10. 03. 2017)  

Serologic Reactions II

Progressive methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Immunoelectrophoresis

·        Turbidimetry, nephelometry

·        Enzyme immunoassays

·        Radioimmunoassays

·        Immunofluorescence

·        Immunoblotting

·        Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection 

Practical experiments:

-         ELISA techniques and their modifications – HCG test, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection


3. (13. 03. – 17. 03. 2017)  

Evaluation of innate humoral immunity components

·        Total complement activity assays (CH50, AH50)

·        Evaluation of complement components (RID, turbidimetry and nefelometry)

·        Determination of acute phase proteins

.        CRP determination  

Practical experiments:

-         Separation of serum and plasma

-         CRP-determination from capillary blood by the means of NycoCard®


4. (20. 03. – 24. 03. 2017)  

Evaluation of innate cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of leucocytes from peripheral blood, enumeration of neutrophils

·        Functional analysis of neutrophils

·        Chemotactic activity

·        Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index

·        Candidacidal activity

·        Metabolic activation (NBT test)

     Practical experiments:

-         Separation of leucocytes from peripheral blood using 6% dextran

-         Evaluation of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and candidacidal activity        

 ·          CREDIT TEST No.I


5. (27. 03. – 31. 03. 2017)

Evaluation of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of lymphocytes

·        Separation of T cell subpopulations

·        Evaluation of the number of T and B cells (flow cytometry)

·        Evaluation of the function of T and B cells (lymphocyte transformation test, determination of the levels of antibodies against vaccinated diseases)          

·        Immunoskin test

Practical experiments:

-         Isolation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque


! NOTE: (03. 04. – 07. 04. 2017) No practicals in this week!  (Conference ”Martin´s Immunology Days“)


6. (10. 04. – 12. 04. 2017 and 20. 04. – 21. 04. 2017)

Laboratory methods used in transplantation immunology – HLA-typing

·        Serologic methods: microlymphocytotoxicity assay

·        Cellular methods:  MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture)

·        DNA-based methods: PCR –SSP

Practically: video explaining DNA-based HLA-typing


7. (24. 04. – 28. 04. 2017)

In vivo and in vitro tests used in the diagnosis of allergies

·         Allergy: atopy and anaphylaxis, clinical symptomatology. Anaphylactic shock – symptomatology and therapy.

.         Family and personal history, indoor and outdoor allergens.  

·         Skin tests: prick test, scarification test, intradermal skin test, epidermal test

 .        Determination of total and allergen–specific IgE levels        

.         Basophile-degranulation test 

Demonstration: EPIGNOST – quick test for measurement of IgE levels

                         Epinephrin (adrenaline) autoinjector


8. (02. 05. – 05. 05. 2017)

Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders

.        determination of acute phase proteins, levels of immunoglobulins, total complement level, C3, C4 complement levels, determination of circulating immune complexes, CD4/CD8 ratio, determination of autoantibodies, …

·        Detection of autoantibodies

·        Determination of circulating immune complexes

Practical experiments:

-        Rheumatoid factor determination by passive agglutination 


9. (09. 05. – 12. 05. 2017)

Evaluation of the immune profile of the patient

·          Evaluation of innate and acquired immunity – summary, differential blood counting, inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, neopterin, TREM-1).  

·          CREDIT TEST II


Please, note the GENERAL RULES for Practicals in Immunology.

Practical classes are held at Moskovská street 2, room number 106 and 105.



Zuzana Párnická, M.D, PhD.                                            Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D, PhD.

Charged with the organisation of Practicals                                       Head of the Department

Study literature

Obligatory textbook                                                  

Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2011, 305 p.


Recommended textbooks 

Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496