Zóna pre zamestnancov
a študentov LF UK


Syllabus of lectures

Syllabus of lectures - Dentistry, Academic year 2016/2017



1., 22th February 2017.  Introduction to the study of Immunology. Antigen.

(Ass. prof. I. Shawkatova, Mgr, PhD.)                                                          

-     Introduction to the study of Immunology

-     Milestones of Immunology

-     The immune system, its characteristics

-     Natural and acquired immunity

-     Antigen, its characteristic and properties


2., 1st March 2017.  Structure and function of antibodies.

(Ass. prof. V. Ďurmanová, Dr., PhD.)                                  

 -     B cells, plasma cells

-      Immunoglobulins, their structure, classification and function

-      Biological properties of immunoglobulins

-      Primary and secondary immune responses, laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases, titer of the serum

-      Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies


3., 8th March 2017.  The complement system. 

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová, MD., PhD.)                                     

-     Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of activation

-     Vasoactive and chemotactic factors

-     Receptors, regulatory proteins

-     Biological significance of the complement system


4., 15th March 2017.  Phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Inflammation.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová, MD, PhD.)                                                                     

-     Professional phagocytes.

-     Chemotaxis, opsonisation

-     Process of phagocytosis. Microbicidial mechanisms

-     Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors                   

-     Infectious and non-infectious inflammation, molecular and cellular events 


5., 22th March 2017. The major histocompatibility complex in man. Membrane antigens.

(Ass. prof. I. Shawkatova, Mgr. PhD.)                                                                                               

-     Genomic organisation of the HLA-complex

-     HLA-molecules, their biochemical structure and distribution

-     The biological significance of the HLA-complex

-     The HLA-complex in organ and tissue transplantations

-     Membrane antigens


6., 29th March 2017.  T cells. Antigen presentation. NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells.

(Prof. M. Buc, MD, DSc.)                                                                                                 

-     T cells. Subsets of T helper cells

-     Pathways of antigen presentation

-     Regulatory and memory T cells

-     Basic characteristics of NK, NKT, MAIT, and ILC cells


7., 5th April 2017.  Vaccination. Immune system of the oral cavity and oro-dental diseases. Tumour immunology.

(J. Javor, MD, PhD.)                                                                                                 

-     Vaccination. Active and passive immunization

-     Immune system of the oral cavity and oro-dental diseases

-     Defence mechanisms in the oral cavity and diseases affecting the oral cavity

-     Effector mechanisms against tumours. Metastatic processes

-     Immunodiagnosis of tumours and their immunotherapy


8., 12th April 2017.  Cytokines – general properties, classification. Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Polarization of T helper cells. Chemokines.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová, MD, PhD.)                                     

-     General properties of cytokines, classification of cytokines

-     Cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Inflammation

-     Systemic inflammation and sepsis

-     Polarization of T helper cells

-     Pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines.

-     Chemokines and haematopoietic growth factors


9., 19th April 2017.  Autoimmune processes. Autoimmune diseases affecting the oral cavity. Autoinflammatory diseases.

(Prof. M. Buc, MD, DSc.)

-     Mechanisms of T cell tolerance to self antigens

-     Central and peripheral tolerance

-     Genetic and hormonal factors in autoimmunity. The role of autoantigen

-     Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases

-     Autoimmune diseases affecting the oral cavity. Sjögren´s syndrome. Pemphigus vulgaris

-     Autoinflammatory diseases - genetics, symptomatology and diagnosis


10., 26th April 2017.  Type I Hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy and anaphylaxis. Life-threatening allergic reactions. Anaphylactic shock. Pseudoallergic reactions. Histamine intolerance. Therapy of allergy.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová, MD, PhD.)                                    

-     Type I hypersensitivity reactions - cellular basis and mediators.

-     Atopy and anaphylaxis

-     Allergens

-     Clinical symptomatology of allergy. Oral allergic syndrome, Kounis syndrome

-     Anaphylactic shock

-     Non IgE-mediated pseudoallergic reactions (anaphylactoid reactions)

-     Histamine intolerance

-     Therapy of allergy and anaphylactic shock 


11., 3rd May 2017Hypersensitivity reactions II - V.

(Ass. prof. M. Bucová, MD, PhD.)                                                     

-     Type II hypersensitivity reactions

-     Drug reactions, ABO and Rh incompatibilities

-     Type III hypersensitivity reactions, local Arthus reaction, serum disease

-     Type IV hypersensitivity reactions, contact dermatitis, photoallergic dermatitis

-     Type V hypersensitivity reactions (m. Graves, myasthenia gravis)


12., 10th  May 2017.  Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.

(Prof. M. Buc, MD, DSc.)                                                                        

-     General features of immunodefiencies

-     Symptomatology of immunodeficiencies in the oral cavity

-     Etiological agents of AIDS. Genetic variability of HIV

-     Interaction of HIV with cells of the immune system

-     Clinical stages of HIV infection

-     Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

-     Immunotherapy of HIV infection




Ass. prof. Mária Bucová, MD, PhD.

Head of the department


Bratislava, February 4, 2017



The lectures will be held at Moskovska street 2, M112 auditorium, Wednesday, 7:30 – 9:20 a.m.

Syllabus of practical classes

Syllabus of practical classes - Dentistry, Academic year 2016/2017



1. (27. 02. – 03. 03. 2017)  

Serologic Reactions I          

Classical methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Agglutination

·        Precipitation

·        Radial immunodiffusion and other immunodiffusion techniques

Practical experiments:

-          ABO blood groups and Rh-factor determination

-         Evaluation of antibodies against Treponema pallidum by passive haemagglutination


2. (06. 03. – 10. 03. 2017)  

Serologic Reactions II

Progressive methods based on antibody – antigen interactions

·        Immunoelectrophoresis

·        Turbidimetry, nephelometry

·        Enzyme immunoassays

·        Radioimmunoassays

·        Immunofluorescence

·        Immunoblotting

·        Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection 

Practical experiments:

-         ELISA techniques and their modifications – HCG test, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection


3. (13. 03. – 17. 03. 2017)  

Evaluation of innate humoral immunity components

·        Total complement activity assays (CH50, AH50)

·        Evaluation of complement components (RID, turbidimetry and nefelometry)

·        Determination of acute phase proteins

.        CRP determination  

Practical experiments:

-         Separation of serum and plasma

-         CRP-determination from capillary blood by the means of NycoCard®


4. (20. 03. – 24. 03. 2017)  

Evaluation of innate cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of leucocytes from peripheral blood, enumeration of neutrophils

·        Functional analysis of neutrophils

·        Chemotactic activity

·        Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index

·        Candidacidal activity

·        Metabolic activation (NBT test)

     Practical experiments:

-         Separation of leucocytes from peripheral blood using 6% dextran

-         Evaluation of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and candidacidal activity        

 ·          CREDIT TEST No.I


5. (27. 03. – 31. 03. 2017)

Evaluation of adaptive humoral and cellular immunity components

·        Isolation of lymphocytes

·        Separation of T cell subpopulations

·        Evaluation of the number of T and B cells (flow cytometry)

·        Evaluation of the function of T and B cells (lymphocyte transformation test, determination of the levels of antibodies against vaccinated diseases)          

·        Immunoskin test

Practical experiments:

-         Isolation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood using Ficoll-Hypaque


! NOTE: (03. 04. – 07. 04. 2017) No practicals in this week!    (Conference ”Martin´s Immunology Days“)


6. (10. 04. – 12. 04. 2017 and 20. 04  21. 04. 2017)

Laboratory methods used in transplantation immunology – HLA-typing

·        Serologic methods: microlymphocytotoxicity assay

·        Cellular methods:  MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture)

·        DNA-based methods: PCR –SSP

Practically: video explaining DNA-based HLA-typing


7. (24.04. – 28. 04. 2017)

In vivo and in vitro tests used in the diagnosis of allergies

·        Allergy: atopy and anaphylaxis, clinical symptomatology. Anaphylactic shock – symptomatology and therapy.

.         Family and personal history, indoor and outdoor allergens.  

·         Skin tests: prick test, scarification test, intradermal skin test, epidermal test

 .        Determination of total and allergen–specific IgE levels        

.         Basophil-degranulation test 

Demonstration: EPIGNOST – quick test for measurement of IgE levels

                         Epinephrin (adrenaline) autoinjector   


8. (02. 05. – 05. 05. 2017)

Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders

.        determination of acute phase proteins, levels of immunoglobulins, total complement levels, C3, C4 complement levels, determination of circulating immune complexes, CD4/CD8 ratio, determination of autoantibodies, …

·        Detection of autoantibodies

·        Determination of circulating immune complexes

Practical experiments:

-        Rheumatoid factor determination by passive agglutination 


9. (09. 05. – 12. 05. 2017)

Evaluation of the immune profile of the patient

·          Evaluation of innate and acquired immunity – summary, differential blood counting, inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, neopterin, TREM-1).  

·          CREDIT TEST II


Please, note the GENERAL RULES for Practicals in Immunology.


Practical classes are held at Moskovská street 2, room number 106 and 105.


Zuzana Párnická, M.D, PhD.                                           Assoc. prof. Mária Bucová, M.D, PhD.

 Charged with the organisation of Practicals                                       Head of the Department



Study literature

Obligatory textbook                                                  

Buc M:  Basic and Clinical Immunology. Bratislava: Comenius University 2011, 305 p.


Recommended textbooks 

Abbas AK, Lichtman, AH, Pillai S: Cellular and molecular immunology. 6th ed. New York: WB Saunders Comp. 2007, 566 s

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M: Janeway´s Immunobiology. 7th ed. New York: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2008, 887 p.

Kindt TJ et al.: Kuby´s Immunology. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman Comp. 2007, 574 p.

Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt I: Roitt´s Essential Immunology. 11th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Limited 2006, 496